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581. The principal parts of a verb are the following forms:
1. The present indicative, or the simplest form of the verb. It generally expresses present time; as, study, go.
2. The past indicative, or the simplest form of the verb that expresses past time; as, studied, went.
3. The present participle, or the form of the verb that ends with ing. It generally represents an act as continuing; as, studying, going.
4. The perfect participle, or the form of the verb that makes sense with the word have before it. It generally represents an act as completed; as, studied, gone.
5. The present infinitive, or the form of the verb that usually begins with to. It generally represents an act as present at the time denoted by some other verb; as, to study; to go. "I wish him to go."
“I wished him to go." These forms are called principal parts because by means of them and the auxiliary verbs (609) all the other parts of the verb can be formed ; as, can go; have gone ; shall go ; might have gone, etc. (See conjugation.)
The terms participle and infinitive are used throughout this work simply to name certain forms of verbs and verbals.
582. Verbs are divided according to their form into two classes : regular verbs and irregular verbs,
583. A regular verb is a verb that forms its past indicative and perfect participle by the addition of ed to the present indicative. Illustrate.
584. An irregular verb is a verb that does not form its past indicative and perfect participle by the addition of ed to the present indicative. Illustrate.
585. A redundant verb is a verb that has more than one form for some of its principal parts; as, crow, crowed, crew (past indicative). Eat, ate, eat (past indicative); eaten, eat (perfect participle).
586. A defective verb is a verb that does not have all the principal parts; as, beware (but one form); can, could (no participle and infinitive forms).
Most of the so-called irregular verbs are verbs of the old, or strong, conjugation. Regular verbs (i.e. verbs of the ed class) belong to the new, or weak, conjugation. See “Strong and weak verbs,” p. 325.
LIST OF IRREGULAR VERBS
587. In the following list, words marked with a star (*) are generally either obsolete or new words. As a rule, they should not be used. Those marked with an R take also the regular ending ed. When two or more forms are given, the one sanctioned by the best modern usage is generally given first. Sometimes, however, the second form is preferred in certain uses; as, “ He was struck with a ball.” “She is stricken with sorrow.”
In reciting, name the principal parts as follows: pres. ind., abide ; past ind., abode ; pres. part., abiding ; perf. part., abode ; pres. inf., to abide.
Why is not a list of regular verbs given?
Pres. Ind. Past Ind.
Perf. Part. Pres. Ind.
bore, bare borne, born Bend (bring forth)
Bereave Bear (carry) bore borne
Beseech Beat beat beaten Bet
begun beheld bent, R.* bereft, R. 3 besought bet, R.* bidden bid bound
Pres. Ind. Past Ind.
built, R.* Burn
R.,4 burnt Burst burst Buy bought Cast cast Catch
caught, R.* Chide chid
forsook froze R. got
R., gilt R., girt
Perf. Part. Pres. Ind. bitten Feed bled
Fight broken Find
Fling brought Fly
Forbear ,4 burnt Forget burst bought Forsake cast
Freeze caught, R.* Freight chidden Get chid chosen Gild
Give cleft, R.
Go cloven Grave clung Grind clad, R.
Hang 8 cost
Have crept Hear R.
Hew R., durst Hide dealt, R.*
(split) clave Cling clung Clothe
clad, R. Come came Cost cost Creep crept Crow R., crew* Cut cut
R., durst Deal dealt, R.* Dig
R., gilt R., girt gave went ? R. ground grew hung had heard R., hove R. hid
ground grown hung had heard R., hoven * R., hewn hidden hid hit held holden * hurt kept knelt, R. knit, R. known
dwelt, R. Eat ate
eat Fall fell
Pres. Ind. Past Ind. Perf. Part. Pres. Ind. Lead led
Shake Leave left
Shape Lend 9 lent
Shave Let let let
Shear lay lain
Shoot Make made made Show Mean meant meant Shred Meet met
Shrink Mow R.
R., plead * Sink
Sleep (seize with rapture)
Sling Rid rid rid
Slink Ride rode ridden Slit
Smell Ring rang rung
Sow Rise rose
risen Speak Rive rived
riven, R. Run ran run
Speed Saw R. R., sawn
Spell Say said
Spend See saw
Spill Seek sought
R., sodden* Spit 14 Sell sold sold Send sent
Split Set set set
Past Ind. Perf. Part.
R., shapen* R.
shaven R., shore* R., shorn shed shed shone, R.* shone, R.* shod shod shot shot showed shown, R. shred shred shrank shrunken * shrunk shrunk shut shut sang sung sung sank sunk sunk sat
slain slept slept slid
slidden slung slung slunk slunk slit
slit smelt, R. smelt, R. smote smitten R.
sown, R. spoke spoken spake* sped, R.* sped, R.* R., spelt R., spelt spent spent spilt, R. spilt, R. spun
spit spat split split R., spoilt * R., spoilt *
Rap * 18
Pres. Ind. Past Ind. Perf. Part. Pres. Ind. Past Ind. Perf. Part. Spread spread spread Swim
Swum Spring sprung
Swing swung swung Stand stood stood
stove, R. Teach taught taught
told Steal stole stolen Think thought thought Stick stuck stuck Thrive R., throve thriven Sting
stung stung Throw threw thrown Stink stank stunk Thrust thrust thrust stunk
trodden Strew R. R., strewn
trod Stride strode stridden Wake
R., woke * R., woke * strid strid Wax R.
waxen Strike struck struck Wear wore
worn stricken Weave
R.* String strung strung Wed
R., wed *
R., wed * Strive strove striven Weep wept wept Strow R.
wound 16 Sweat sweat, R. sweat, R.
Work R., wrought R., wrought Sweep swept swept Wring
wrung wrung Swell R.
R., swollen Write wrote written 1. The verb bear (to bring forth) has two perfect participles : borne in the active voice, and born in the passive. 2. Derivative verbs generally form their principal parts in the same way as the words from vhich they are derived; as, befall, mistake, undergo. 3. The irregular form is preferred. 4. The regular form is preferred. 5. Dare, to challenge, is regular. 6. Drark is incorrectly given by some authors as the perfect participle of drink. 7. Went is a contraction of wended, the past indicative of the AS, wendan, to wend or go. 8. Hang, to suspend by the neck, is generally regular. 9. Do not use loan as a verb. 10. Lie, to tell a falsehood, is regular. II. Pen, to write, is regular. 12. The form proven should not be used. 13. Rap, to knock, is regular. 14. Spit, to pierce with a spit, is regular. 15. Stay, to cause to stop, is regular. 16. Wind, to blow, is sometimes regular; as, That blast was winded. - Scott. But also, His horn he wound. - Scott.
Helped is now used instead of holp as the past of help. Begin, drink, run, sing, etc., preserve the original a in the past indicative. Cling, fling, spin, sting, etc., have lost it and have taken the modern form with u. Fret, knead, weigh, and some other verbs were formerly “strong" verbs. Shakspere uses gat instead of got.