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581. The principal parts of a verb are the following forms:

1. The present indicative, or the simplest form of the verb. It generally expresses present time; as, study, go.

2. The past indicative, or the simplest form of the verb that expresses past time; as, studied, went.

3. The present participle, or the form of the verb that ends with ing. It generally represents an act as continuing; as, studying, going.

4. The perfect participle, or the form of the verb that makes sense with the word have before it. It generally represents an act as completed; as, studied, gone.

5. The present infinitive, or the form of the verb that usually begins with to. It generally represents an act as present at the time denoted by some other verb; as, to study; to go. "I wish him to go."

“I wished him to go." These forms are called principal parts because by means of them and the auxiliary verbs (609) all the other parts of the verb can be formed ; as, can go; have gone ; shall go ; might have gone, etc. (See conjugation.)

The terms participle and infinitive are used throughout this work simply to name certain forms of verbs and verbals.

582. Verbs are divided according to their form into two classes : regular verbs and irregular verbs,

583. A regular verb is a verb that forms its past indicative and perfect participle by the addition of ed to the present indicative. Illustrate.

584. An irregular verb is a verb that does not form its past indicative and perfect participle by the addition of ed to the present indicative. Illustrate.

.

585. A redundant verb is a verb that has more than one form for some of its principal parts; as, crow, crowed, crew (past indicative). Eat, ate, eat (past indicative); eaten, eat (perfect participle).

586. A defective verb is a verb that does not have all the principal parts; as, beware (but one form); can, could (no participle and infinitive forms).

Most of the so-called irregular verbs are verbs of the old, or strong, conjugation. Regular verbs (i.e. verbs of the ed class) belong to the new, or weak, conjugation. See “Strong and weak verbs,” p. 325.

LIST OF IRREGULAR VERBS

587. In the following list, words marked with a star (*) are generally either obsolete or new words. As a rule, they should not be used. Those marked with an R take also the regular ending ed. When two or more forms are given, the one sanctioned by the best modern usage is generally given first. Sometimes, however, the second form is preferred in certain uses; as, “ He was struck with a ball.” “She is stricken with sorrow.”

In reciting, name the principal parts as follows: pres. ind., abide ; past ind., abode ; pres. part., abiding ; perf. part., abode ; pres. inf., to abide.

Why is not a list of regular verbs given?

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Pres. Ind. Past Ind.

Perf. Part. Pres. Ind.
Abide abode abode Beget
Am, or be was been
Arise
arose arisen

Begin
Awake awoke, R. R., awoke* Behold
Bear 1

bore, bare borne, born Bend (bring forth)

Bereave Bear (carry) bore borne

Beseech Beat beat beaten Bet

beat

Bid
Become became become
Befall 2 befell befallen Bind

Past Ind.
begot
begat *
began
beheld
bent, R.*
bereft, R.3
besought
bet, R.*
bade
bid
bound

begun beheld bent, R.* bereft, R. 3 besought bet, R.* bidden bid bound

Pres. Ind. Past Ind.
Bite bit
Bleed bled
Blow blew
Break broke

brake
Breed bred
Bring brought
Build

built, R.* Burn

R.,4 burnt Burst burst Buy bought Cast cast Catch

caught, R.* Chide chid

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built, R.*

4

R.,

forsook froze R. got

got

gotten

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R., gilt R., girt

R.

Perf. Part. Pres. Ind. bitten Feed bled

Feel blown

Fight broken Find

Flee bred

Fling brought Fly

Forbear ,4 burnt Forget burst bought Forsake cast

Freeze caught, R.* Freight chidden Get chid chosen Gild

Gird

Give cleft, R.

Go cloven Grave clung Grind clad, R.

Grow come

Hang 8 cost

Have crept Hear R.

Heave cut

Hew R., durst Hide dealt, R.*

given gone

Choose chose
Cleave clave
(adhere)
Cleave cleft

(split) clave Cling clung Clothe

clad, R. Come came Cost cost Creep crept Crow R., crew* Cut cut

R., durst Deal dealt, R.* Dig

R., graven

R., gilt R., girt gave went ? R. ground grew hung had heard R., hove R. hid

Dare 5

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dug, R.*

ground grown hung had heard R., hoven * R., hewn hidden hid hit held holden * hurt kept knelt, R. knit, R. known

Hit
done

Hold
drawn
R., dreamt Hurt
drunk 6 Keep
driven Kneel
dwelt, R. Knit
eaten

Know

Lade
fallen Lay

dug, R.*
Do did
Draw drew
Dream, R., dreamt
Drink drank
Drive drove
Dwell

dwelt, R. Eat ate

eat Fall fell

hit held

laden laid

hurt
kept
knelt, R.
knit, R.
knew
R.
laid

eat *

R.,

Lie 10

R.,

Pen 11

Pres. Ind. Past Ind. Perf. Part. Pres. Ind. Lead led

led

Shake Leave left

left

Shape Lend 9 lent

lent

Shave Let let let

Shear lay lain

Shed (recline)

Shine Light

lit *
R., lit *

Shoe
Lose lost

lost

Shoot Make made made Show Mean meant meant Shred Meet met

met

Shrink Mow R.

R., mown
Pay paid paid

Shut
R., pent R., pent Sing
(fence in)
Plead R., plead * R.,

R., plead * Sink
Prove 12
R.

R., proven*
Put
put put

Sit
Quit
quit, R.
quit, R.

Slay
R., rapt*
R., rapt

Sleep (seize with rapture)

Slide
Read read read
Rend rent

rent

Sling Rid rid rid

Slink Ride rode ridden Slit

rode

Smell Ring rang rung

Smite rung

Sow Rise rose

risen Speak Rive rived

riven, R. Run ran run

Speed Saw R. R., sawn

Spell Say said

said

Spend See saw

Spill Seek sought

sought

Spin Seethe

R., sodden* Spit 14 Sell sold sold Send sent

sent

Split Set set set

Spoil

Past Ind. Perf. Part.
shook shaken
R.

R., shapen* R.

R.,

shaven R., shore* R., shorn shed shed shone, R.* shone, R.* shod shod shot shot showed shown, R. shred shred shrank shrunken * shrunk shrunk shut shut sang sung sung sank sunk sunk sat

sat slew

slain slept slept slid

slid

slidden slung slung slunk slunk slit

slit smelt, R. smelt, R. smote smitten R.

sown, R. spoke spoken spake* sped, R.* sped, R.* R., spelt R., spelt spent spent spilt, R. spilt, R. spun

spun spit

spit spat split split R., spoilt * R., spoilt *

Rap * 18

een

R., sod*

swam

sprang

Stay 15

R.

R.

*

wove, R.*

Pres. Ind. Past Ind. Perf. Part. Pres. Ind. Past Ind. Perf. Part. Spread spread spread Swim

Swum Spring sprung

swum sprung

Swing swung swung Stand stood stood

Take took

taken
Stave
stove, R.

stove, R. Teach taught taught
staid staid
Tear tore

torn (remain)

Tell told

told Steal stole stolen Think thought thought Stick stuck stuck Thrive R., throve thriven Sting

stung stung Throw threw thrown Stink stank stunk Thrust thrust thrust stunk

Tread trod

trodden Strew R. R., strewn

trod Stride strode stridden Wake

R., woke * R., woke * strid strid Wax R.

waxen Strike struck struck Wear wore

worn stricken Weave

woven,

R.* String strung strung Wed

R., wed *

R., wed * Strive strove striven Weep wept wept Strow R.

strown, R.

Wet
Swear

sworn
Win

won
sware

Wind wound

wound 16 Sweat sweat, R. sweat, R.

Work R., wrought R., wrought Sweep swept swept Wring

wrung wrung Swell R.

R., swollen Write wrote written 1. The verb bear (to bring forth) has two perfect participles : borne in the active voice, and born in the passive. 2. Derivative verbs generally form their principal parts in the same way as the words from vhich they are derived; as, befall, mistake, undergo. 3. The irregular form is preferred. 4. The regular form is preferred. 5. Dare, to challenge, is regular. 6. Drark is incorrectly given by some authors as the perfect participle of drink. 7. Went is a contraction of wended, the past indicative of the AS, wendan, to wend or go. 8. Hang, to suspend by the neck, is generally regular. 9. Do not use loan as a verb. 10. Lie, to tell a falsehood, is regular. II. Pen, to write, is regular. 12. The form proven should not be used. 13. Rap, to knock, is regular. 14. Spit, to pierce with a spit, is regular. 15. Stay, to cause to stop, is regular. 16. Wind, to blow, is sometimes regular; as, That blast was winded. - Scott. But also, His horn he wound. - Scott.

Helped is now used instead of holp as the past of help. Begin, drink, run, sing, etc., preserve the original a in the past indicative. Cling, fling, spin, sting, etc., have lost it and have taken the modern form with u. Fret, knead, weigh, and some other verbs were formerly “strong" verbs. Shakspere uses gat instead of got.

wet, R.*

wet, R.*

Swore

won

*

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