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English destroying or capturing all the rest.
8. It was lost sight of. 9. We often call Shakspere myriad-minded. 10. Do many persons believe Venus to be inhabited by beings like ourselves?
624. Correct the following errors:
1. Was the song sang well? 2. The wine was drank in her absence. 3. I was thrown the ball. 4. It was left fall. 5. It was forgot.
625. Read the following sentences :
1. James studied the lesson. 2. If James study, he will improve.
3. James can study the lesson. 4. Study the lesson, James. 5. I desire James to study the lesson. 6. James having studied the lesson, the teacher heard him recite it.
Is the act of studying expressed in different ways in these sentences? In which sentence is it expressed as a fact? In which is James commanded to study? In which is the act expressed as merely thought of? In which sentence does the verb show that James has the power to study the lesson? In which sentence is the act expressed by the use of “to” as part of the verb? In which do we find participles used? In what way does the first sentence
? express the act of studying? The second? The third ? The fourth? What form of the verb is used in the first sentence? The second? The third? The fourth? The fifth? The sixth?
626. Mood is a variation in the use and form of a verb to show the manner in which an act or state is expressed with reference to the person or thing represented by its subject.
The word mode is also used to name this property.
627. There are six moods: the indicative, the subjunctive, the potential, the imperative, the infinitive, and the participial. The first four belong to finite verbs (592); the last two belong to non-finite verbs (593).
MOODS OF FINITE VERBS
628. A verb in the indicative mood is used in expressing a fact; as, "General Grant died July 23, 1885.”
629. The fact may sometimes be referred to as a doubt; as, “If Saturn is large, Jupiter is larger.” An assumed fact may be referred to in the same way; as, “If I am deceived (as I probably am], I am lost.”
630. The indicative mood is sometimes used in expressing a doubt; as, “If it rains to-morrow, I shall not go."
631. The indicative mood may be used interrogatively; as, “When did Napoleon III die?” “Has he gone ?”
Subjunctive Mood 632. A verb in the subjunctive mood is used in expressing what is merely thought of.
EXAMPLES -“ If it rain to-morrow, I shall not go.” (Doubt.) “I would I were a boy again.” (A wish.) “ If I were you, I would go.” (A supposition.) “If thou hadst been here my brother had not died.” (A mere conclusion.)
633. In the subjunctive mood, be is used instead of am, are, and is, and were instead of was. (718.)
634. A verb in the subjunctive mood is generally used in a dependent proposition, or clause; as, “If I go, I shall
635. If, though, that, lest, except, unless, whether, or a similar conjunction, generally precedes the subjunctive mood; as, “If I were," etc. “If I had been," etc.
The verb or its first auxiliary is sometimes placed before the subject, and the conjunction if is then omitted; as, “ Were I," etc. “ Had I been,” etc. In analysis, the omitted conjunction may be supplied.
The group of forms which belong to the subjunctive mood are more sparingly used now than they used to be; but as regards their nature and functions they have never changed. — Mason. To the pure subjunctives of conclusion, good writers now generally prefer the subjunctive potential forms; as, would be, would have been, should be, etc. – Kerl.
636. A verb in the potential mood is used in expressing power, permission, possibility, compulsion, duty, inclination, or a wish.
EXAMPLES. — “I can go.” “I may go.” “It may rain.” “I must go.” “I should go.” “I would go.” “May you prosper!”
The potential mood in its simplest form is composed of an auxiliary and an infinitive. If the two words were construed separately, the auxiliary would be in the indicative or the subjunctive mood; as, “I know that he could go" (ind.). "I must do it" (ind.). “I could do it if I tried " (subj.). “I hope that he may succeed" (subj.). See “ Potential Mood,” p. 323.
637. The signs of the potential mood are the auxiliaries may, can, must, might, could, would, should, and ought.
Shall in the sense of must, and will when it expresses volition, belong rather to the potential mood than to the indicative; but, to avoid troublesome distinctions, they are always considered as belonging to the indicative mood. — Kerl.
638. The potential mood may be used interrogatively; as, “May I go ?” “My father, must I stay ?”
Imperative Mood 639. A verb in the imperative mood is used in expressing a command or a request; as, “Go away.' Forgive our trespasses."
640. The imperative mood is sometimes used in expressing permission, or a strong wish; as, “Go and play.” "God pity them both."
641. The subject of a verb in the imperative mood is generally you, thou, or ye, understood; as, “Come here" (= Come you here). “ Honor thy father and thy mother.”
Why is a verb in the imperative mood usually in the second person?
642. Sometimes the subject is expressed; as, “ Cleanse thou me from secret faults.” Find this quotation.
643. Sometimes the subject is in the first or the third person; as, Cursed be I that did so.
Shak. who love the Lord. - Watts. “ Now tread we a measure,” said young Lochinvar. Scott.
Be it so.
Webster. “Thy kingdom come.” Laugh those who can, weep those who may. — Scott.
MOODS OF NON-FINITE VERBS
644. A verb in the infinitive mood consists of the form that generally begins with to, and it is used in expressing a fact.
EXAMPLES. “ The commander ordered the city to be burned.” “ He believed his friend to have been wronged.” Before these days rose up Theudas, boasting himself to be somebody. — Acts v. 36. (276, 1.)
645. The word to may be called the sign of the infinitive mood. It should not be separated from the rest of the verb by another word; as, "Frequently to study,” or “ To study frequently,” not “ To frequently study.” It should not end a sentence.
646. To is not used after the active voice of the verbs bid, let, make, hear, feel, and see (and equivalents of see; as, behold, observe, etc.); and sometimes after dare, have, help, need, etc.; as, “ Bid him take the money.” “Let him die.” “I felt something touch me."
This rule applies to verbals as well as to non-finite verbs.
Remember that the non-finite verb is take, die, touch; not to take, to die, to touch.
647. A verb in the infinitive mood is used as the predicate of a clause, but not of a sentence; as, “Let him go.” “The commander ordered the city to be burned" ( = that the city be burned). (273, etc.)
648. A verb in the participial mood consists of one or more participles, and is generally used in expressing a fact.
EXAMPLES. — “Spring returning, flowers appear." “ The letter having been written, his work was done." I never heard of this being questioned. – Bishop Mcllvaine. “ Their being Englishmen protected them.”
649. A verb in the participial mood is frequently used as the predicate of a clause. See examples, 648. (271, etc.)
650. Sometimes a non-finite verb in the participial mood is coördinate with a finite verb; as, The crisped brooks