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ran nectar, visiting each plant. Milton. (Visiting

. = and visited.) The words self (sing.) and selves (plu.)

. are added to my, our, thy, your, him, her, it, and them, forming a class of compound personal pronouns, which have two principal uses. Whitney ( Ess. of Eng. Gr.," p. 71).

6 , (Are added and forming are the predicates of the sentence.) As for Saul, he made havoc of the church, entering into every house, and haling men and women committed them to prison.

Acts viii. 3. Ulysses wakes, not knowing where he was. Pope. (130.) Compare the following sentences : 1 ... am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity .. and showing mercy


I jealous God, and visit the sins . . . and show mercy

Book of Common Prayer.



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651. In what mood are the following verbs ?

1. Frederick the Great became 1 king of Prussia in 1740. 2. Charge, Chester, charge! — Scott.

- . 3. I would go, if I were you.

4. Ring out, wild bells, and let him die ! Tennyson 5. We insist on everything being proved. - Chalmers. 6. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. - Lincoln. 7. Asbury having come, we remained. 8. O that I had gone! 9. I might have felt something touching me. 10. God said, Let there be light!

1. In the indicative mood there are 5 verbs; subjunctive, 2; potential, 3; imperative, 5; infinitive, 2; and participial, 3.

652. Correct the following errors : 1. Please, can I go? 2. I wish I was in Dixie. 3. Let

4. Would I was her. 5. He hasn't gone, and he don't intend to.

him to go.


653. Read the following sentences :

1. James studies his lesson. 2. James studied his lesson. 3. James will study his lesson. 4. Run, ran, will run ; come, came, shall come; do, did, shall do, will do.


Read the verbs in the foregoing sentences. Which verb expresses a present act? Which a past act? Which a future act? Which of the verbs, beginning with “run," can be used to express a present act? A past act ? A future act? Do they differ in form ? Into what three parts do we divide time? Do these verbs change their form to distinguish time?

5. James studies his lesson to-day. 6. James has studied his lesson to-day. 7. James studied his lesson when I

8. James had studied his lesson when I came. 9. James will study his lesson when I come. 10. James will have studied his lesson when I come. II. Run, has run; ran, had run; will run, will have run.

Do the verbs in the fifth and sixth sentences refer to present time? Does the fifth sentence state that James has completed the act of studying? Does the sixth ? May I say, “ James has studied yesterday”? Why not? Does “ has studied” represent an act as completed in present time? In the seventh sentence, to what time does “studied” refer? “Had studied,” in the eighth? Which one simply represents a past act? Which one represents an act as completed in past time? Which two verbs refer to future time? Which one shows that the studying is completed in future time? Mention the three verbs that show that the act of studying is completed. Which one shows that it is completed in present time? In past time? In future time? Do the verbs change their form to show that an act is completed ?

654. Tense is a variation in the use and form of a verb to distinguish time.

655. There are six tenses: the present, the present perfect, the past, the past perfect, the future, and the future perfect.

The past tense is sometimes called the imperfect tense, or the preterit; the present perfect tense is sometimes called the perfect tense; and the past perfect, the pluperfect.

656. The present and the past tense may each be expressed by a single word; as, go, went. (581, 1, 2.)

Frequently an auxiliary verb and a present infinitive or a present participle are used to express the present and the past tense; as, do go, is going, can go, may be going, ought to go, did go, was going.

657. Have (has) and had are the signs of the perfect tenses. They are combined with a perfect participle.

EXAMPLES. Have gone, has gone, had gone, shall have gone, may have gone, have been going. (581, 4.)

658. Shall and will are the signs of the future tenses. They are combined with the present infinitive. EXAMPLES. - Shall go, will go, shall have gone, will have gone,

shall be going. Go, have, and be are infinitives (581, 5). Gone is a perfect participle (581, 4). Going is a present participle (581, 3). method of inflection is used for the future tenses? Perfect tenses? (312.) Why are there six tenses?



Active Voice

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Ind. Do
Subj. Do
Pot. May do
Imp. Do
Inf. To do
Part. Doing

Present Perfect
Ind. Have done
Pot. May have done
Inf. To have done
Part. Having done

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Ind. Am done
Subj. Be done
Pot. May be done
Imp. Be done
Inf. To be done
Part. Being done

was done
were done
might be done

Present Perfect
Past Perfect

Future Perfect
Ind. Have been done had been done shall have been done

had been done
Pot. May have been done might have been done
Inf. To have been done
Part. Having been done

How many tenses has each mood ? What are they? How are they formed ? In how many moods is each tense found? What is the sign of the present perfect tense? Of the past perfect ?

Of the future perfect? Of the future tenses? Of the perfect tenses? Which tenses contain the perfect participle? Which contain the present infinitive ?

How do the tenses in the passive voice differ from those in the active voice ?

The tenses of the indicative mood are the only tenses that refer with any degree of accuracy to the divisions of time indicated by their names.



661. Write a table like the foregoing (659), with the verb " love." Try." Raise.Rise." "Lie" (to recline).


' Lay.Set."


Catch,in the passive voice (660). Love,in the passive voice.

" Forget."

662. In what tense is each of the following verbs ?

Run, come, did, shall go, might have gone, were, had been, am, singing, was punished, to go, marching, try, have been made, lie, have sat, lay, undergo, to be rewarded, loved, being rewarded, considered, would try, will have been sold, having purchased, be, can be, must have heard, to have been killed, could produce, ought to repent, shall be found, flew, are fighting, to have gone, beware.


Tenses of the Indicative Mood

663. The indicative mood has six tenses.

664. A verb in the present tense of the indicative mood generally represents

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