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1. A present act or state; as, “The snow is falling." “The day is cold.” “They are married.

2. A present custom or habit; as, “They respect the Sabbath.” 'He obeys orders.”

3. A general truth ; as, “Evil communications corrupt good manners.” “Metals are expanded by heat."

665. Unchangeable truths and present facts should be expressed in the present tense; as, “He said that the earth is (not was) round.” “I think it is late;" not “I should think it was late."

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666. A verb in the present perfect tense of the indicative mood generally represents —

I. An act or state as completed in present time; as, “The troops have surrendered.“The weather has been cold.”

2. An act or state as connected with present time; as, They have been married twenty-seven years.'

What striking events have occurred this year!”

Are come, is gone, etc., are in the present perfect tense. (A French idiom, 619.)

667. A verb in the past tense of the indicative mood generally represents 1. A past act or state; as, “It was snowing yesterday.” ;

” “The day was cold.” " They were married last year." “The troops surrendered."

2. A past custom or habit; as, “They respected the Sabbath.” “He obeyed orders promptly.”

668. The perfect participle should not be used for the past indicative, nor the past indicative for the perfect

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participle; as, “I did it ;” not “I done it.”

“ I have seen him ;” not I have saw him.”

669. A verb in the past perfect tense of the indicative mood generally represents an act or state as completed in past time; as, “The troops had surrendered before the reënforcements arrived."

670. A verb in the future tense of the indicative mood generally represents a future act or state; as, “Which

select?" "The day will be cold." 671. A verb in the future perfect tense of the indicative mood generally represents an act or state as completed in future time; as, “The troops will have surrendered before the reënforcements arrive."

672. The present, past, and future tenses are called the simple or absolute tenses; and the present perfect, the past perfect, and the future perfect are called the relative tenses. Why?

673. The simple tenses in the passive voice usually imply completion, and hence they are sometimes equivalent in time to the corresponding relative tenses in the active voice; as, “We are not forgotten.“They have not forgotten us."

Tenses of the Subjunctive Mood

674. The subjunctive mood has three tenses: the present, the past, and the past perfect.

675. A verb in the present tense of the subjunctive mood refers to future time, and generally implies doubt or uncertainty; as, “ If I go, I shall go alone." If love be rough with you, be rough with love. Shak.

676. The present perfect tense is sometimes, though rarely, found in the subjunctive mood; as, If the young gentleman have done offense, I take the fault on me. — -Shak.

677. A verb in the past tense of the subjunctive mood refers to present or indefinite time, and generally implies denial; as, “If I were you, I should go."

678. A verb in the past perfect tense of the subjunctive mood refers to past time, and generally implies denial; as, “If they had not retreated, they would have been killed.”

Tenses of the Potential Mood

679. The potential mood has four tenses: the present, the present perfect, the past, and the past perfect.

680. A verb in the present tense of the potential mood refers to present or future time; as, I may go now.” may go next week.”

681. A verb in the present perfect tense of the potential mood refers to present, past, or future time, and represents the act or state as completed at that time; as, “The child may have been drowned." "He may have gone yesterday." * By that time he may have come.

682. A verb in the past tense of the potential mood may refer to present, past, or future time; as, “He would go yesterday, and I could not prevent him." "He would go now, if he could.“He would go to-morrow, if he could.“Children should obey their parents.” (At all times.)

683. A verb in the past perfect tense of the potential mood generally refers to past time, and implies denial; as, “I should have taken his advice." “He might have gone yesterday, if you had not come.” "

Tense of the Imperative Mood

684. The imperative mood has one tense: the present.

685. A verb in the present tense of the imperative mood refers to future time; as, Charge, Chester, charge. Scott. Laugh those who can. - Id.

Be working when he comes.”

686. Sometimes, though rarely, the present perfect tense is used in the imperative mood; as, Have done thy charms. — Shak.

Tenses of the Infinitive Mood

687. The infinitive mood has two tenses: the present and the present perfect.

688. A verb in the present tense of the infinitive mood generally represents an act or state as present or future at the time represented by the principal or finite verb; as, “I desire him to go" (pr.). “I desired him to go” (pr.). I expected him to be here at this time” (fut.). “The horse was ordered to be saddled(fut.).

689. A verb in the present perfect tense of the infinitive mood represents an act or state as completed at the time represented by the principal, or finite, verb; as, “We believe him to have been wronged.Aristides is said to have been most just. Cicero.

Tenses of the Participial Mood

690. The participial mood has two tenses: the present and the present perfect.

691. A verb in the present tense of the participial mood generally represents an act or a state as present and continuing at the time represented by the principal, or finite, verb; as, “Spring approaching, flowers appear." The crisped brooks . . . ran nectar, visiting each plant. Milton. “We saw them burning the town.” “We saw the town (being) burned.

692. A verb in the present perfect tense of the participial mood generally represents an act or state as completed at the time represented by the principal, or finite, verb; as, “The troops having crossed the river, the fort was attacked.” “The river having been crossed by the troops, the fort was attacked.”

FORMS OF THE TENSES

693. Each tense may be expressed in different ways, called forms; as, “He studies.“He does study." “He is studying.“The lesson is studied.

“ The verb studies is in the common form. Does study expresses emphasis, and is in the emphatic form. Is studying represents the act as continuing, and is in the progressive form. Is studied is used to express the passive voice, and is called the passive form.

694. The forms of a tense are the different ways in which it can be expressed.

695. The common form is the simplest form of the verb; as, study, strike, go.

696. The emphatic form expresses emphasis. It is made by using the auxiliary do or did as a part of the verb; as, do study, did strike, do go.

Do and did do not make interrogative or negative propositions emphatic.

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