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5. The

used as a name. 4. The passage is to be feared. bird flying is a wren.

61. Point out the verbals used as adverbs :

1. They have gone to stay. 2. Having been detected, they were punished. 3.

3. I was persuaded to remain. 4. Scaling yonder peak, I saw an eagle. 5. He is anxious to be employed.

Responsives 62. A responsive is the word yes, yea, ay, no, nay, or amen, used to reply or respond to a question or a petition.

EXERCISE

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63. Use responsives in place of the following dashes :

I. Will you go? 2. Have they returned ? 3. Can you recite "The Vagabonds”? - 4. As many as are of the opinion that the tariff bill should be repealed will say Ay.

5. Deliver us from evil.

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Interjections 64. An interjection is a word used simply to express a sudden feeling or to call attention.

65. An interjection should generally be followed by an exclamation point (!).

EXERCISE

66. Which of the following words are interjections ?

1. Alas, poor Yorick ! 2. Ho, ho! Come here ! 3. Hush! he will hear you. 4. “O 1 stay!” the maiden said.

Be sure that you blow out the candle

Ri fol de rol tol de rol lol. – Horace Smith. 1. The interjection O is always written with a capital letter.

5.

Definition of Language

67. Language is the expression of thought by means of words combined in sentences.

We think, and our mental products are ideas and thoughts. An idea is expressed by a single word, or a group of words not containing a subject and predicate; as, birds, trees, grow, can fly, wise, more beautiful, etc. A thought is expressed by a group of words containing a subject and predicate; as, Birds can fly; Trees are plants, etc.

68. All the words of the language can be divided, according to their use in sentences, into ten classes, called parts of speech. (300.)

The term part of speech is applied to a single word as well as to a class of words.

69. The ten parts of speech are —

Nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, verbals, responsives, and interjections.

70. The part of speech to which a word belongs is determined from its use in the sentence in which it is

found. Hence a word may be a noun in one sentence, a verb in another, an adjective in another, and so on; as, “The fast is over" (n.). "I fast twice a week” (v.). “ He owns a fast horse" (adj.).

) “ The horse trots fast(adv.).

The word word is frequently used in this book as the equivalent of part of speech. It must not be forgotten, however, that a part of speech may consist of several words. Thus, General Fitz-John Porter is a noun; might have been marching is a verb; more gallant is an adjective; less wisely is an adverb; to be reproved is a verbal; according to is a preposition; as if is a conjunction, etc.

EXERCISE

71. Point out the parts of speech in the following articles:

The fact is, that in order to do anything in this world worth doing, we must not stand shivering on the bank and thinking of the cold and the danger, but jump in and scramble through as well as we can. It will not do to be perpetually calculating risks and adjusting nice chances : it did very well before the flood, when a man could consult his friends upon an intended scheme for a hundred and fifty years, and then live to see its success for six or seven centuries afterward; but at present, a man waits, and doubts, and hesitates, and consults his brother, and his uncle, and his first cousins, and his particular friends, till one fine day he finds that he is sixty-five years of age; that he has lost so much time in consulting first cousins and particular friends, that he has no more time left to follow their advice. Sydney Smith.

THE ARROW AND THE SONG

I shot an arrow into the air,
It fell to earth, I knew not where;
For so swiftly it flew, the sight
Could not follow it in its flight.
I breathed a song into the air,
It fell to earth, I knew not where ;
For who has sight so keen and strong
That it can follow the flight of song?
Long, long afterward, in an oak,
I found the arrow, still unbroke;
And the song, from beginning io end,
I found again in the heart of a friend.

- Henry W. Longfellow.

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Definition of Grammar

72. Grammar is the science that treats of the relations and forms of words and sentences, as used in the correct expression of thought.

What does this definition include ? Exclude?

73. When words are so combined as to bring together the ideas expressed by them, they are said to be related. The relation of words is indicated by their form and position. The form of a word is determined by the idea that it expresses, and the relation that it bears to other words. The position of a word is determined by the relation that it bears to other words. The usual place in which words are found in a sentence is their natural position. When words are used out of their natural position, they are said to be transposed. As we naturally expect to hear or see words in a certain order, we are more likely to notice them when they are out of their usual place, and consequently the transposition of a word renders it more emphatic; and one of the chief reasons why words are transposed is to make them emphatic.

We have a priori reasons for believing that in every sentence there is some one order of words more effective than any other; and this order is the one which presents the elements of the proposition in the succession in which they may be most readily put together. — Spencer.

74. The leading logical divisions of English grammar are etymology, which treats of the classification and form of words, and syntax, which treats of the relation of words and the construction and form of sentences.

The subject matter of Grammar is not words, but the relations which words bear to one another in formed sentences, and these relations are named and catalogued for us in the scheme of the Parts of Speech. - Earle.

Abbreviations

75. Shortened written words like Gen. R., Prof., M. D., etc., are called abbreviations.

In speaking, the word for which the abbreviation stands is usually pronounced in full, except in the case of initial letters in a person's name, and a few titles, such as A.M., LL.D., M.D., etc. Thus, “ Wm. A. Stone, Gov. of Pa.,” should be read William A. Stone, Governor of Pennsylvania.

76. An abbreviation should begin with the same kind of letter as the word for which it stands, and be followed by a period.

EXERCISES 77. Write the following abbreviations and the words for which they stand :

Mr., Mrs., Dr., M.D., A.M., Col., P.M., Ala., ill., Pa., W. Va., N.O., Acct., Recd., A.D. (See Appendix, p. 347.)

78. Abbreviate the following words:

Esquire, Doctor of Laws, Honorable, Professor, Florida, Kentucky, Tennessee, British America, county, hour, France, bushel, creditor, debtor, yards.

79. Write the abbreviations for the days of the week. The months of the year.

Contractions

80. Shortened spoken and written expressions like o'er, I've, etc., are called contractions.

A contraction should be read as it is written. Thus, “I'll go should not be read “ I will go.” Contractions should be avoided in formal writing and speaking.

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