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Almighty
Certain
Chief
Circular
Continual
Dead
Deaf

Empty
Equal
External
Extreme
False
Filial
Fluid

Four-footed
Full
Golden
Hollow
Honest
Infinite
Living

Naked
One
Two
Paternal
Perfect
Perpetual
Right

Royal
Second
Straight
Sincere
Supreme
Universal
Void

Some of the foregoing adjectives are compared when they are not taken in their full sense; as, Our sight is the most perfect of all our senses. — Addison. The most perfect society. Emerson. An emptier name. -Goldsmith. The extremest verge. — Shakspere. A fuller style. Whitney.

778. A few participial adjectives are compared; as, “The most learned man.” “The most dazzling sight.” So also exciting, thrilling, interesting, etc.

779. The positive is sometimes diminished by suffixing ish, or using somewhat, rather, slightly, etc.; as, red, reddish; rather old. It is sometimes greatly increased by using very, exceedingly, etc.; as, very black; exceedingly cold.

RULES FOR EXPRESSING COMPARISON

780. The comparative degree is regularly formed by adding er to the positive, or placing more or less before it; as, wiser; more beautiful; less droll.

The denoting of the comparison of adjectives, that is, the formation of the comparative and the superlative, happens in two modes, the one answering to the AS., the other to the Romance mode. The one is effected through derivational terminations, the other by the combination of the adverbs more and most with the positive. — Mætzner.

781. The superlative degree is regularly formed by adding est to the positive, or placing most or least before it; as, wisest; most beautiful ; least droll.

More, most, less, and least, when used in comparing adjectives or adverbs, should be regarded as parts of the words with which they are used. (312, 3.) In “a most dazzling sight,” most is an adverb, meaning very, or exceedingly.

782. Er and est are added to monosyllables, and words of two syllables ending with le, ow, or y, or accented on the second syllable; as, wise, wiser, wisest; noble, nobler, noblest; narrow, narrower, narrowest; merry, merrier, merriest; polite, politer, politest.

And also common, handsome, sober, tender, etc.

783. More and most are placed before other adjectives; as, vicious, more vicious, most vicious; interesting, more interesting, most interesting. (312, 3.)

Er and est, and more and most are used to compare adjectives above the positive.

784. If an adjective compared by suffixing er and est is used with one compared by using more and most, both adjectives should be separately compared, or the smaller adjective should be placed first, and both be compared by one word, more or most; as, “The wisest and most advantageous course." “ The more nice and elegant parts."

785. Less and least are placed before adjectives to compare them below the positive; as, wise, less wise, least wise; important, less important, least important.

786. Compound adjectives that admit of comparison are compared by changing the descriptive word; as, longheaded, longer-headed, longest-headed ;” good-natured, better-natured, best-natured.”

While it is advisable for the student to follow the foregoing rules in the comparison of adjectives, there are many exceptions to them to be found in literature.

IRREGULAR COMPARISON

787. The following adjectives are compared irregularly:

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Sup. nearest next

nethermost soldest eldest outmost outermost utmost uttermost southern

most undermost topmost upmost uppermost

utter

Hind

farthest
foremost
first
furthest
best
s hindmost

hindermost
inmost
innermost
latest
last
least

hinder

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under 7

s later 5

Top 9

Late

latter 5 less 6

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Little
Many
Much

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1. Worse and worst are the comparative and superlative of the AS. weor (=bad). 2. Farther = more distant; further = additional. 3. The words in parentheses are adverbs. 4. Better and best are the comparative and superlative of the AS, bet (=good). Good has no comparative of its own. 5. Later and latest are opposed to earlier and earliest; latter and last, to former and first. Latter and last are older than later and latest. Elder and eldest are older than older and oldest. 6. Lesser is sometimes used for less. Generally, it should not be used. 7. Some irregular adjectives have no positive. 8. Older and oldest apply to persons and things; elder and eldest, to persons only. Older, not elder, precedes than. 9. Some irregular adjectives have no comparative.

788. The following adjectives imply comparison, but are not compared : inferior, superior, junior, senior, major, minor, interior, exterior, anterior, posterior, prior, superior.

These words come to us directly from the Latin, in which they are comparatives.

LYTE'S ADV. GR. AND COMP. — 16

EXERCISES

789. Compare all of the following adjectives that can be compared. Compare the first ten below the positive.

Ill, noble, wise, studious, sick, ample, sublime, square, profound, indulgent, exact, triangular, tough, ill-mannered, round, preferable, thick, Christian, ancient, rural, final, joyful, full, fundamental, green, evil, high, hot, remote, near, droll, sprightly, dry, good-natured, distant, idle, industrious, lazy, successful, ornamental, useful, oily, gentle, polite, spiteful.

790. Correct the errors in the following sentences :

1. Draw a straighter line. 2. She is the tallest of the two. 3. The Bible is more valuable than

any

book. 4. Eve was the loveliest of her daughters. 5. He was the tallest of all the other boys. 6. That is the most universal opinion of the two. 7. This is more reddish than that. 8. Gladstone is the wisest statesman of his associates. 9. Is not this more superior ? 10. A more oldfashioned man I have not saw this five years.

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791. The number of an adjective is a variation in its form to agree with the number of the noun that it modifies.

792. Two adjectives, this (plural these) and that (plural those), have number.

POSITION OF ADJECTIVES

793. An adjective is generally placed before the noun that it modifies; as, Some pious drops the closing eye requires. — Gray.

For the position of predicate adjectives, see 518-520.

794. Adjectives that express number generally precede adjectives that express quality, and follow other adjectives ; as, One little girl." “ Those two old men.”

795. If two or more adjectives are of unequal rank, the one expressing the most obvious or most permanent quality modifies the noun most closely and is placed nearest to it; as, “Large red apples.” “The unclouded arching sky."

796. If two adjectives are of equal rank, the longer word is placed last; and they are joined by and or separated by a comma; as, “A sober, industrious man.” A sober and industrious man.”

797. Adjectives that express quality are sometimes transposed —

1. When they themselves are modified; as, One perfectly upright.“A man sound in all his members.” “A well twenty-five feet deep."

2. When several adjectives modify the same noun; as, “A man, wise, learned, and good.

3. To add strength or beauty to a sentence; as, “Great is Diana.” (462, 5; 519, 4.)

798. Else follows the noun or the pronoun that it modi

Somebody else.Who else?

fies; as,

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