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We soon reached the creek. Father found a good place for his net, and sent Frank up the stream to chase the fish down by stirring in the water with a long pole, while I went down and threw little clods into the water as I walked slowly along toward the net. In a little while, father called out, “Stop, Joshua ! - Quietly, Frank !” and raised his net. How surprised we were to see that he had a large number of fish in it! When he got them to shore, Frank and I counted them and found that he had caught sixteen.

After fishing at this place a few minutes longer, we went down the stream, stopping at several other places. In an hour or so, we had caught eighty-five large fish. We then started for home, well pleased with what we had done.

EXERCISE

810. The following subjects for narratives are suggested : 1. Landing of the Pilgrims.

On September 6, 1620, one hundred and two pilgrims sailed from England for America. Name of vessel, Mayflower. Voyage long and perilous. Sixty-three days on the ocean. Intended to land at the mouth of the Hudson. Tempest. Out of course. First land seen, Cape Cod.

Difficulty in landing. Boat half rotten and useless. Repaired. A party of sixteen landed.

December 6. Weather dreadful. Wandered about all day. Next morning, attacked by Indians. Escaped to ship.

Vessel was steered south and west along coast. Rudder wrenched away by storm. Found a safe harbor. On December 11, 0. S., landing effected. Pilgrim Fathers on Plymouth Rock.

2. A Picnic.

When and where held. Who were invited. Getting ready. The trip there. What was done.

Home again. 3. A day at school. 4. How I spent last Saturday. 5. My last pleasure excursion. 6. Discovery of America. 7. Battle of Bunker Hill. 8. Death of Lincoln. 9. A

trip to the north pole. 10. A trip to the moon. II. A day with a fairy. 12. The story of the Prodigal Son (Luke xv. 11-32). 13. David and Goliath (1 Samuel xvii. 38-51). 14. The sale of Joseph into Egypt (Gen. xxxvii. 12-36). 15. Elijah and the prophets of Baal (1 Kings xviii. 17-40).

ADVERBS

811. An adverb is a word used to modify a verb, a verbal, an adjective, or another adverb, without representing an object.

Adverbs are also used to modify other parts of speech.

812. Words from other parts of speech sometimes become adverbs; as, “ Smack went the whip” (v.).

(v.). Red hot” (adj.). Wide open” (adj.). See, also, 223, 238,

and 255.

813. By the omission of a verb of motion, some adverbs have come to be used as verbs; as, I'll hence to London. -Shak. I'll in. - 16. Down, soothless insulter ! — Campbell.

In sentences like the foregoing, a verb may probably be supplied (“I'll go hence”), but in the following sentences the insertion of the verb would weaken if not alter the expression: Away with him ! - Acts xxi. 36. She up with her fist. - Sydney. So also up with it, down with it, in with it, out with it, over with it, under with it, etc., in which up, down, in, out, over, under, etc., should be parsed as verbs.

Probably the best way to dispose of up [in “She up with her fist," etc.] is to call an intransitive, defective verb. - W. D. Henkle.

814. Much, little, well, ill, no, only, still, first, last, fast, hard, like, near, etc., may be used either as adjectives or as adverbs.

When like is used as an adjective or an adverb, two persons or things are compared. If the comparison is made through an action done by the first, like is an adverb; if not so made, it is an adjective. In both cases it is followed by an indirect object; as, The albatross fell off, and sank like lead into the sea. Coleridge (adv.). The trumpet's blast, like the thunder of God, makes our hearts beat fast. — Brooks tr. (adj.). “They fought like brave men " (adv.). “ They seemed like brave men (adj.). Since like is followed by the objective case, and not the nominative, it cannot be used as a conjunctive adverb.

815. The phrases at last, at random, in general, in short, etc., may be called phrase adverbs (ph. adv.)., and may thus be distinguished from phrases used as adverbs, in which the preposition and its object are construed separately. As it were is sometimes used as a clause adverb.

Little by little, one by one, by and by, etc., may also be called phrase adverbs.

וי

וי

66 The

816. In using adverbs, care must be taken to select appropriate words. Remember that

1. An adverb should be used to describe an act; an adjective to describe an object.

EXAMPLES “I arrived safely( = My arrival was a safe one). I arrived safe" ( = I was safe when I arrived). “ The lime burns white." Sugar tastes sweet." “ The sun shines bright.

(6 The sun shines brightly.“The blind man looks (sharp or sharply?).” child was called tender.” “The child was called tenderly.” How do the last two sentences differ?

When be or become can be used instead of the verb, the modifying word should be an adjective.

2. No should not be used instead of not. “Will you go, or no?" should be “or not ?"

3. But one negative word should be used to express denial.

6 I do not want nothing" should be “I do not want anything,” or “I want nothing."

4. When affirmation is intended, not is correctly used with words beginning with dis-, in-, un-, etc.; as, “ He is not dissatisfied.” “They are not unconcerned.”

5. In affirmative sentences, as and as may be used; in negative, so and as; as, “I am as tall as he.” “She is not so old as Jane."

6. The preposition from should not be used before hence ( = from this place), thence, and whence.

7. When should not be used to join clauses to nouns not expressing time; where, to nouns not expressing place.

R. “ The hour when he will arrive is not known.” “I have forgotten the date when he came." “O'er the grave where our hero we buried.” “The fittest place where man can die,” etc. So, also, the moment when, the time when, the spot where, a position where, etc.

W. “The family where he stayed received him cordially.” “A partnership where several partners are unknown,” etc. Why are these sentences incorrect?

8. We should not use illy, that there, this here, as for so, good for well, how or how that for that, like for as, 'most for almost, near for nearly, that for so, 'way for away, such a (adj.) (noun) for so (adj.) a (noun).

9. Exaggerations and repetitions should be avoided.

.

EXERCISE

817. Correct the errors in the following sentences:

Speak prompt and loud. 2. This is no good. 3. I am terribly glad to see you. 4. It is colored brightly. 5. I don't know nothing about him. 6. He was most killed. 7. She is not as old as 8. How slow the moon is rising! 9. The paper where he saw it in is torn. 10. Such a delightfully lovely day we have never had for a long time.

me.

CLASSES OF ADVERBS

818. Read

1. She came quietly. 2. Go there. 3. He will return here soon. 4. Now, slowly, then, there, hence, even, only, very.

What word modifies the verb “come "? How did she come? Does “

Does "quietly" show the manner of her coming ? Where am I to go ? Does the adverb “there” denote place? What does “ here” denote? "Soon"? "Slowly”?

819. Adverbs may be divided into the following classes :

1. Adverbs of manner; as, so, well, as, ill, like, how, thus, somehow, aloud, together, etc.

Adverbs of manner answer the question How ? They generally modify verbs. To this class some authors add modal adverbs, or adverbs that modify propositions, by showing how the statement is made or regarded ; as, “ Truly, this was the Son of God.”

Verily, verily, I say unto you.” Most modal adverbs can be disposed of as modifying the asserting word, or verb.

Adverbs of affirmation, negation, and doubt are sometimes classed as adverbs of manner.

2. Adverbs of place; as, here, there, whence, hither, above, somewhere, back, off, up, forth, etc.

Adverbs of place answer the question Where? Whither? Whence?

or

3. Adverbs of time; as, now, always, then, already, early, seldom, daily, sometimes, till, since, henceforth, etc.

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