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876. A transitive verbal derived from a transitive verb in the active voice, is in the active voice.

EXAMPLES “ He tried to scale the heights." (He scaled the heights.) “ The captain saved the ship by throwing the cargo overboard." (The captain threw the cargo overboard.) (613.)

877. A transitive verbal derived from a transitive verb in the passive voice, is in the passive voice.

EXAMPLES. “ The men desire to be employed.” (The men are employed.) To be employed is to be happy." “ Wealth acquired dishonestly often proves a curse.” Being called a thief is,” etc. (614.)

878. When a transitive verbal in the active voice refers to a preceding noun or pronoun, it shows that the word to which it refers represents the actor; as, “The troops crossing the river were attacked."

879. In the passive voice, the verbal shows that the noun or pronoun to which it refers represents the receiver of the act; as, "The troops attacked by the enemy were crossing the river.”

880. The passive voice form of a verbal consists of the perfect participle, or of the infinitive or participle of the verb to be combined with a perfect participle; as, the soldiers wounded, etc., to be wounded, to have been wounded, being wounded, having been wounded.

EXERCISE

881. In what voice are the following verbals ?

1. Is it necessary to inflict corporal punishment for the purpose of maintaining good order ? 2. After having silenced the guns, they attempted to storm the fort. 3. Do not wait to be asked. 4. I can easier teach twenty

what were good to be done, than be one of the twenty
to follow mine own teaching. - Shak.
5.

My master is of churlish disposition,
And little recks to find the way to heaven
By doing deeds of hospitality. - Shak.

Form

882. Read the following sentences :

1. The men came to learn it. 2. To have learned the art will be a pleasure. 3. The men learning the work are Germans. 4. After having learned it, they will be employed. 5. After delaying the train, etc. 6. To be reproved is the consequence of meddling.

Which words in the foregoing sentences are verbals ? What are the principal parts of the verb “ learn ”? “Delay”? “Reprove"? Is “to learn” an infinitive? What is “to have learned "? Is “learning ” a participle? What is “having learned ”? “Delaying”? “To be reproved”?

883. Verbals have two forms: the infinitive and the participial.

These forms correspond to the forms of the infinitive and the participial mood of the verbs from which they are derived. (581.)

884. A verbal in the infinitive form consists of an infinitive or an infinitive and a participle; as, To be employed is to be happy. Gray. The air 'gins to thicken. Beaumont and Fletcher. (581, 645, 646.)

885. A verbal in the participial form consists of one or more participles; as, We at length ended our distressful voyage by arriving at Naples, after having escaped a thousand dangers. — Goldsmith. (581.)

EXERCISE

886. In what form are the verbals in 872 and 881 ?

Tense

887. Read the following sentences :

1. James tries to study the lesson. 2. To have studied the lesson will be a satisfaction. 3. By studying diligently you will succeed. 4. The lesson studied is difficult. 5. After having studied his lesson, he walked to the river.

Point out the verbals in the foregoing sentences. Which are in the infinitive form? Which are in the participial form ? Does “to study” refer to the same time as “tries”? Does “to have studied” represent the act as completed at the time referred to? What time is represented by “to study”? By “studied ”? By “having studied "?

888. Verbals, like the verbs from which they are derived, have tense. (654.)

889. The infinitive form has two tenses: the present and the present perfect. The participial form has three tenses : the present, the present perfect, and the past.

890. A verbal in the present tense generally represents an act or state as present at the time referred to; as, “I desire to go.“The bird flying is a robin."

891. A verbal in the present perfect tense generally represents an act or state as completed at the time referred to; as, To have succeeded in the work is creditable.” “After having climbed the tree, they pelted us with stones.”

892. A verbal in the past tense generally represents an act or state as completed at the time referred to; as, “The army surrendered by Cornwallis numbered seven thousand men." (673.)

893. Words expressing desire, command, expectation, etc., have a reference to the future, which prevents them from being followed by the perfect infinitive; as, “I hoped to go ; ” not“I hoped to have gone.

[blocks in formation]

Past

Passive Voice
Present

Present Perfect
INFINITIVE s To be seen

to have been seen FORM: 1 To be studied to have been studied PARTICIPIAL | Being seen

having been seen FORM: Being studied

having been studied

saw

studied

Why is "go" not used in the passive voice? Which tense is always in the passive voice? What is the sign of the present perfect tense? How may the present participle always be recognized ?

EXERCISE

895. Write a table like the foregoing withlove." "Try." Rise.Catch," in the passive voice. Love,in the passive voice.

USES OF VERBALS

896. Verbals are sometimes used as nouns in the neuter gender, third person, singular number, and nominative or objective case. (219; p. 322.)

897. A participial noun generally requires the before it and of after it. A participle used as a noun requires that both words be omitted; as, “By the reading of good books,” etc. “By reading good books,” etc.

In some sentences there is a difference in sense; as, “He lost his grain by the burning of his barn." “He lost his grain by burning his barn.” How do these sentences differ?

898. The infinitive verbal is generally used in connection with verbs; the participial verbal is generally used after prepositions; as, “I desire to go.“You will oblige me by remaining."

But we may say, “He tried walking.“None knew thee but to love thee."

See “Gerund,” p. 319, “ Infinitives,” p: 320, “Participles,” p. 322.

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899. A verbal used as a noun takes the place of the noun; as, “He desired to go.

900. Verbals used as adjectives may modify nouns and pronouns, and be the complements of verbs and verbals; as, “The spy captured yesterday is to be shot.(221.)

901. Verbals used as adverbs may modify verbs, verbals, adjectives, and adverbs. (223.)

902. The conjunction and and a finite verb should not be used instead of a verbal with to; as,

“ Come to see LYTE'S ADV. GR. AND COMP. — 18

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