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covered in 1602 by Bartholomew Gosnold, who gave it its name. When discovered it proved to be valuable on account of its large growth of sassafras, which was shipped to Europe as a medicine. Thomas Mayhew became Governor of the island in 1641, and soon afterward settled where Edgartown now stands. He and his family were much interested in missionary work among the native Indians. In 1835 Martha's Vineyard was first used as a camp meeting ground; and of late years the annual gathering on the island for religious purposes has been very large. It has also become a popular summer resort. Near Gay Head, a promontory at the west end of the island, a remnant of a tribe of native Indians may still be found.

EXERCISES

914. The following subjects for biographical sketches are suggested:

1. An autobiography.

State date and place of birth ; name and occupation of parents ; where you have lived; things first remembered ; where you have attended school; what you have studied; what you like to do best; interesting events in your life; plans for the future.

2. Biography of a schoolmate or near friend.

State date and place of birth ; name and occupation of parents ; where he has lived; where he has attended school; interesting events in his life; what he does; disposition and leading traits of character.

3. The most prominent man of your acquaintance. 4. The President of the United States.

5. George Washington. 6. Robert Fulton. 7. Abraham Lincoln. 8. John G. Whittier. 9. Queen Victoria.

10. Moses.

915. The following subjects for historical sketches are suggested:

1. The place in which you live. 2. Your native county. 3. Your native state. 4. The school you are attending. 5. The largest city or town you have visited. 6. California. 7. New York City. 8. Mexico. 9. The French Republic. 10. The American Indians.

PREPOSITIONS

or

a

916. A preposition is a word used with a noun pronoun to form a phrase, which it joins to the word that the phrase modifies.

Or, a preposition is a word that shows the relation of an object, an action, or a quality to an object. It is frequently defined as a word which shows the relation between its object and some other word.

The principal relations shown by prepositions are those of place, time, and cause, reason, or purpose.

917. The object of a preposition is the noun or pronoun with which it is used to form a phrase.

918. The object of a preposition may be —

I. A word used as a noun; as, “He went to Lancaster.(Noun.) "Come to me." (Pronoun.) “After having fled,etc. (Verbal.) “Of the good.“From within." - What are the modifiers of truly ?

2. A phrase used as a noun; as, “They came from beyond Jordan."

From beyond may also be called a preposition. (931.)

3. A clause used as a noun; as, “That will be determined by what he says." Reason and justice have been jurymen ever since before Noah was a sailor. Shak.

919. A preposition may have two or more objects, and two or more prepositions may have the same object; as, “The difficulties between England and Ireland are a source

of misunderstanding and ill feeling.“They marched up and down the hill."

920. When a word usually a preposition has no word to govern, it becomes an adverb, a noun, or an adjective; as, “Come in."He went about.“The man jumped down." “It came from within." "The plain below.

921. The following sentences illustrate two kinds of errors: (1) the use of needless prepositions; (2) the omission of needed prepositions. Correct them.

I. It is no use to me. 2. They were prevented coming. 3. To whom shall we go to for help and for strength? 4. It is to me that he came to. 5. Is he worthy our confidence? 6. I was home.

922. Many prepositions are compound words; as, into, within, throughout, etc.

923. Many prepositions are derivative words; as, about, around, below, between, etc.

Position of Prepositions

924. A preposition is generally placed before its object.

925. Prepositions generally precede whom, which, etc., but may follow them. The pronoun that, when used as a subordinate conjunctive (357), always precedes the preposition of which it is the object; as, “The man with whom

“The city from which.“The lady that you spoke to."

“The man whom you came with.926. The preposition and its object should be so placed as to show clearly what word is modified by the phrase introduced by the preposition.

you came.”

927. A phrase (or a clause) used as a noun takes the place of the noun; as, Toward Boston is east.” (That you have wronged me doth appear in this.” “I desire him to study.)

928. A phrase (or a clause) used as an adjective generally follows the word that it modifies; as, “The city of Boston." (Pleasure that comes unlooked for is thrice welcome. Rogers.)

929. A phrase (or a clause) used as an adverb takes the place of the adverb; as, “I shall go to Boston in the morning.(I shall go there then.) In the morning I shall go to Boston.(Then I shall go there.) (So, also, "I shall go when he comes." (I shall go then.) When he comes, I shall go.” (Then I shall go.))

List of Prepositions

930. The following prepositions are in common use:

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Respecting 12
Save 19
Since
Through
Throughout
Till 20
To
Touching 12
Toward
Towards
Under
Underneath
Until 20
Up

Notwithstanding

But 10

Of 16
Off 17
On 5

By 11

Over

Concerning 12
Down

At 5

Past 18

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9. Rare.

Upon
Without

As to

From out With 11

Because of Instead of 21 Within

According to Contrary to Out of 1. “It cost one dollar a yard.” “This perfume is worth thirty cents an ounce." “I ride once a day." “He gave them four shillings a-piece, or a man."

In Early English (Morris's “Accidence," p. 195), this "a" is seen to be the old preposition "on," "an," or "a.” It is not (though it might seem to be) the Indefinite Adjective. - Abbott. The is sometimes incorrectly used for the preposition a in such expressions as

one dollar the yard;" "ten cents the pound,” etc. 2. Following in time or place. It is sometimes equivalent to for. 3. Amid, amidst, generally imply quantity. 4. Among, amongst, generally impiy number. They should be used only when more than two are referred to. 5. When applied to place, at should be used before the names of houses, small places, and distant cities not well known. At is used with reference to a point, and in or on with reference to a place. (See In.) 6. By the side of. 7. In addition to. 8. Between, betwixt, are generally used when only two are referred to.

10. But is generally called a preposition when it is used in the sense of except. II. “I went by the house." (See Past.) By an agent; with an instrument.

12. Concerning, respecting, and touching are generally interchangeable. 13. Ere = before. 14. In, when applied to place, should be used before the names of countries, and large, well-known cities. (See At.) “We walk in the park.” (Motion in a place.) 15. Into denotes entrance. It should be used after verbs of motion. 16. The rays of (proceeding from) the sun. The castle of (belonging to) the king. The news of (about) the battle. 17. A variation of of. 18. Past generally refers to time. 19. Save except. 20. Till, until, are now used only with reference to time. 21. Often, in stead of. (Cf. In place of.)

Interesting facts about the meaning and use of many of the foregoing words will be found in any unabridged dictionary.

931. The following prepositions are less common :

Abaft, aboard of, adown, alongside, along with, as for, aslant, bating, but for, despite, despite of, from among, from before, from behind, from beyond, from under, inside, outside, over against, pending, per, sans, saving, together with, versus, via, withal, withinside.

RULES OF CONSTRUCTION

932. Rule 17. A preposition is used to introduce a phrase and join it to the word that the phrase modifies. (235)

933. Special Rule 17. A preposition is sometimes used simply to introduce a phrase. (240, 1.)

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