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etc. — high grass

Exports are gold, coal, copper, wheat, and tallow three fourths the size of the U. S. — Animals : kangaroo and dingo

natives : few, black, degraded — sandy desert — natives live in huts, eat raw flesh, etc. - few large rivers birds : swan and emu.

2. Facts arranged in an outline:


Size: Largest island — often called a continent three fourths the size of the U. S.

Inhabitants : Emigrants from England - engaged in farming, stock raising, gold mining, etc. — natives few, black, degraded; live in huts ; eat raw flesh, etc.

Climate, soil, etc.: Hot — few large rivers — sandy desert -high grass noted animals: the kangaroo and dingo — remarkable birds : the swan and emu.

Exports: Chief, gold and wool other exports : coal, copper, wheat, tallow.

3. Description written from the outline:


Australia is the largest island of Oceania. It is so large that it is often called a continent. It looks small on the map, but it is more than three fourths the size of the United States.

A large number of emigrants from England are settled there. They are engaged in farming, stock raising, gold mining, etc. The natives are few in number, black, and degraded. They live in rude huts, and eat raw flesh, lizards, and worms.

The greater part of Australia is hot. There are but few large rivers on the island. Some parts of the interior are sandy deserts, and other parts are covered with high grass. The most noted animals are the kangaroo and the dingo. The black swan and the emu are the most remarkable birds.

The chief exports are gold and wool. Coal, copper, wheat, and tallow are also exported.



942. The following subjects for descriptions are suggested:

1. Your native town.

Where situated: In what county and State - near what natural object — how far, and in what direction from a city.

Size: Number of inhabitants - length of longest streets.
Public buildings : Name, location, and number.
Inhabitants : Occupation

noted men and women. Surrounding scenery: Fine views - fine drives — handsome residences, etc.

2. The post office.

Where located — postmaster — number of times mail is received -scenes when mail is distributed — anxiety of persons to receive letters, daily papers, etc. — could we do without post offices?

3. Your own home. 4. The nearest railroad station. 5. The county in which you live. 6. The State in which you live. 7. View from the highest point of land in the neighborhood. 8. The most interesting place you have visited. 9. New York Harbor. 10. Bunker Hill. II. Niagara Falls. 12. A trip to California. trip up the Nile. 14. A trip down the Mississippi. 15. The place you would like to live in. 16. A home at the foot of the “Rockies."

" 17. Yellowstone Park. 18. Valley Forge during the Revolution.

13. A

Description of Processes

943. In describing a process
1. State the materials necessary to do the work.

2. State the things to be done in the order in which they should be done.


944. The following subjects for descriptions are suggested: 1. Making molasses candy.

Materials needed: Molasses, butter, dishes, a steady fire, etc. — steps described: mixing the ingredients, stirring the mixture, testing the candy, cooling it, pulling it - conclusion: the pleasure of making molasses candy, a winter evening's sport.

2. Making bread. 3. Building a barn. 4. Making a horseshoe. 5. Learning to skate. 6. "Breaking” a colt. 7. Gold mining 8. Mining coal. 9. Teaching a young lady to fire off a pistol. 10. An old bachelor sewing on a button.

Description of Persons

945. In describing a person, the following outline will be of use:

1. Form; height, stout or thin, etc. 2. Face; features, expression, etc. 3. Bearing, walk, etc. 4. Manners. 5. Any peculiarity of appearance, dress, etc. 6. Evidence of character, disposition, mental ability, etc.

946. The following description will serve as an illustration:

GENERAL GRANT IN 1864 General Grant was a man of medium height and compact figure, with a slight stoop in his shoulders. His hair and beard were brown and short. His features were marked, but not prominent. His brow was broad and square, and to a close observer indicated unusual development of both intellect and will. He had clear, bright eyes, a heavy jaw, and a sharply cut mouth, which expressed great strength and firmness. His bearing and manners were plain, modest, and retiring, and his dress was in keeping with his behavior. While in active service he generally wore the regulation undress uniform of a general, without sash or belt, and a low-crown felt hat without any badge upon it of military rank or distinction. The whole man was a marvel of simplicity, a powerful nature veiled in the plainest possible exterior, imposing on all but the acutest judges of character, or the constant companions of his unguarded hours.1

1. See Badeau's “Military History of General Grant."


947. The following subjects for description are suggested:

1. One of your schoolmates. 2. Some one's grandmother. 3. The most prominent man you have seen. 4. An old man. 5. The baby. 6. The village blacksmith.

7. The person you most admire. 8. My neighbors. 9. The American Indians. 10. A native of China. II. The President of the United States. 12. A fashionable young man. 13. Rip Van Winkle.

14. Abel Lazybones, a tramp.

15. Queer people we sometimes meet.


948. A conjunction is a word used to join sentences, or parts of a sentence.

CLASSES OF CONJUNCTIONS 949. Conjunctions are divided into two chief classes : coördinate conjunctions and subordinate conjunctions.

950. A coördinate conjunction is a conjunction used to join sentences, or parts of a sentence that have the same construction; as, “I go, but I return.' "Phillips Brooks was a vigorous and independent thinker.” (47.)

951. A coördinate conjunction is placed between the parts of a sentence joined by it.

952. A subordinate conjunction is a conjunction used with a subject and a predicate to form a clause, which it joins to the word that the clause modifies; as, “Was not Aristides banished because he was just?” (54.)

953. A subordinate conjunctive (248) is placed at the beginning of the clause that it introduces; as, If thy right eye offend thee, pluck it out.” (95, 4.)

954. The principal coördinate conjunctions are

Copulative: and, as well as,1 moreover. Adversative: but, yet. Alternative: nor,2 or.

1. As well as, when and also can be used in its stead, is a copulative, coördinate conjunction. 2. Nor, when equivalent to and not, might be called a coördinate conjunctive adverb, or an adverbial conjunction.

955. The principal subordinate conjunctions are —

Causal: as (= because), because, for, lest, since (= because), whereas. Conditional : except, if, provided, unless. Comparative: than. Concessive: though, although. Demonstrative : that. Indeterminate : whether.

956. To the foregoing list may be added as if, as though, except that, provided that, save, saving that, seeing that, however, inasmuch as, forasmuch as, so that, in order that, notwithstanding, so as, etc.

Such words as therefore, hence, still, accordingly, consequently, yet, likewise, also, etc., are only simple adverbs not even connective adverbs; still less are they mere conjunctions. Mason.

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