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957. Sometimes a word usually an adverb, when it is near the beginning of a sentence or a clause, may be considered a conjunction; as, “ Now Barabbas was robber.” “Do as you please; only do not expect me to help you."

a

958. Some conjunctions are compound words; as, nevertheless, whereas, notwithstanding, etc.

959. Some conjunctions are derivative words; as, became, unless, etc.

960. The following cautions should be observed :

I. In a series of similar terms the conjunction is generally used between the last two only, and a comma follows each term but the last; as, “A clause may be used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb.”

But the conjunction may be repeated after each term for emphasis ; as, “ Be good, and kind, and thoughtful, and polite." Let us remember, however, that the unnecessary repetition of and greatly weakens the force of a sentence.

2. Do not use but that or but what for that; neither -or, for neither

nor; other— but, for other than ; whether or no for whether or not; if for whether.

EXERCISE

961. Correct the following errors :

1. I don't know but what I will go. 2. It was no other but James.

3. Neither him or her done it. 4. I met John, James, and William and Henry.

5. Have you heard if he was elected ?

Correlative Conjunctives 962. Read the following sentences :

1. Both schools and churches are educators. 2. Schools and churches are educators. 3. Neither moon nor stars could be seen. 4. The problem is so difficult that we cannot solve it. 5. I do not know whether I shall go or stay.

What conjunction follows the word "both”? “Neither”? "So"? “Whether”? Could we say “both churches or schools"? Why not? What conjunction must follow “both”? What two words are necessary to join “moon and “stars”? What word prepares the way for "nor"? For “that”? What part of speech is “so”?

"What conjunction follows “whether”? Both and and are called correlatives, because both prepares the way for and, and is followed by and. What correlatives are in the third sentence? The fourth? The fifth ?

963. Correlatives are words used in pairs, the latter of which is a coördinate conjunction or a subordinate conjunctive.

They are said to be correlative (i.e. to have a mutual relation), because the former is always followed by the latter.

964. The antecedent or preparatory term may

be 1. A pronoun; as, “ Such as I have, give I thee.”

2. An adjective ; as, “ Take such books as you need.” “ Hydrogen is eleven thousand times lighter than water.”

3. An adverb expressing comparison; as, “Time is as precious as gold.” “How much earlier does the sun rise in summer than in winter ?

4. An adverb of emphasis ; as, Both natural philosophy and chemistry are useful."

5. A subordinate conjunction; as, “I do not know whether I shall go or stay."

965. The subsequent term may be —

1. A coördinate conjunction; as, “ Both natural philosophy and chemistry are useful.” “I do not know whether I shall go or stay."

2. A subordinate conjunction ; as, “Water is much heavier than air." 3. A relative pronoun; as, "Such as I have, give I

' thee.” (368.)

4. A conjunctive adverb; as, “She did as well as I.” 966. The principal correlatives are As (adv.)as(conj. adv.) ; so (adv.); asi (conj. adv.); so (adv.) - that (sub. conj.); both 2 (adv.) and (coör. conj.); either 2 (adv.) -- or 3 (coör. conj.); more (adv.) - than* (sub. conj.); though (sub. conj.) — yet (adv.); not (adv.) only (adv.) but (coör. conj.) also (adv.), or not only (coör. conj.) but also (coör. conj.); such (adj. or pro.)—as (rel. pro.); the (conj. adv.) the (adv.); neither 2 (adv.) - nor (coör. conj.); whether (sub. conj.) or (coör. conj.).

1. 820, 2. In "He did as well as I,” the first as modifies well; the second as modifies well understood, and joins the clause as 1 (did well) to well. 2. The correlatives both, either, and neither are adverbs of emphasis, modifying the two parts of the sentence joined by the conjunctions that follow them. They are usually called conjunctions. 3. Poets sometimes use or or instead of either or, and nor --- nor instead of neither - nor. 4. Than is generally used as the correlative of an adjective or an adverb in the comparative degree.

2

3

967. When both -and, either or, neither - nor, and not only but also are used, the part of the sentence that follows the first term of the correlatives should be similar to the part following the second. Thus, “ I will either meet you at Lancaster or West Chester,” or “ I will meet you either at Lancaster or West Chester,” should be “either at Lancaster or at West Chester," "at either Lancaster or West Chester," or “ either meet you at Lancaster or meet you at West Chester."

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RULES OF CONSTRUCTION

968. Rule 18. A coördinate conjunction is used to join sentences or parts of a sentence that have the same construction.

969. Special Rule 18. A coördinate conjunction is sometimes used simply to introduce a sentence.

970. Special Rule 19. The coördinate conjunction or is sometimes used to join an appositive noun to the word that it modifies; as, “A sovereign, or supreme governor, rules in England."

971. Rule 12. A subordinate conjunctive is used to introduce a clause, and join it to the word that the clause modifies. (537.)

972. Special Rule 7. A subordinate conjunctive is sometimes used simply to introduce a clause. (538.)

* The rules for subordinate conjunctives apply to subordinate conjunctions.

973. Special Rule 20. The subordinate conjunction as is sometimes used to introduce a word or a phrase; as, A noun is a word used as a name; as, Rome.

[blocks in formation]

1. Money is made for the comfort and convenience of animal life. · Burke.

WRITTEN PARSING

ORAL PARSING

and

And is a coördinate conjunction. It is used to join comfort and convenience.

CC
com & con

2. Mr. Smith, as well as his friends, was deceived.

ORAL PARSING

WRITTEN PARSING

a

as well as

As well as is a coördinate conjunction. It is used to join Mr. Smith was deceived and his friends were deceived, the predicate of the second member being understood.

CC
I m & 2 m

3. But grief, even in a child, hates the light, and shrinks from human eyes. — De Quincey.

WRITTEN PARSING

ORAL PARSING

But

But is a coördinate conjunction. It is used to introduce the sentence, But grief hates, etc.

CC
in sen

4. If we wish to know the force of human genius, we should read Shakspere. Hazlitt.

WRITTEN PARSING

ORAL PARSING

If is a subordinate conjunction. It is used to introduce the clause If we wish, etc., and join it to should read.

If
SC

in cl should read

5. That that is false, is true.

WRITTEN PARSING

ORAL PARSING

That

That is a subordinate conjunction. It is used to introduce the clause That that is false.

SC in cl

EXERCISE

I.

975. Parse the conjunctions in the following sentences :

'Twixt Want and Scorn she walked forlorn,

And nothing could avail. — Willis. 2. The “Battle of the Spurs" and the “Battle of Flodden Field” were fought on the same day. 3. And then came the thought of all his old schoolfellows. -- Hughes.

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