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4. To set off transposed phrases and clauses.

EXAMPLES - Since the time of Chaucer, there have been only two poets who at all resemble him. Lander. If Swift's life was the most wretched, I think Addison's was one of the most enviable.”

5. To set off interposed words, phrases, and clauses.

EXAMPLES. “ It was, indeed, of no avail.” “ The dervise, in the Arabian tale, did not hesitate to abandon his comrade."

“ And so, as Tiny Tim observed, . God bless us, every one !?”

6. To set off short quotations informally introduced.
EXAMPLE “Who said, “ Let us have peace'?"
7. To set off independent elements.
EXAMPLE. “ Fly, brother, fly!”
8. Frequently, to mark the ellipsis of a word.

EXAMPLES. “ Burke was a statesman ; Cowper, a poet.” “ Tickets, fifty cents.”

9. Sometimes, at the end of a long subject.

EXAMPLE. 6 The Convention which assembled at Paris in 1792, decreed that royalty was abolished in France.”

10. Sometimes, between the members of a compound sentence that are not subdivided by commas.

EXAMPLE. We love Burns, and we pity him. — Carlyle. 11. When necessary to prevent ambiguity.

What does the adverb modify in “He who breaks his promises frequently loses the confidence of his friends”?

EXERCISES 96. Copy ten sentences, to illustrate the first ten rules for the comma.

97. Supply omitted commas:

1. Macaulay is learned vivacious and elegant; Sydney Smith vigorous and witty. - Underwood. 2. Morally the



general superiority of women

is I think unquestionable. 3.

Between the dark and the daylight

When night is beginning to lower
Comes a pause in the day's occupations
That is known as the children's hour.

- Longfellow.

The Semicolon (;)

98. The semicolon is used

1. Between the members of a compound sentence that are subdivided by commas.

EXAMPLE. - He did it all, and infinitely more; and to Tiny Tim, who did not die, he was a second father. Dickens.

2. Between members that are loosely connected.


I'll answer him by law; I'll not budge an inch.

3. Before as, viz., namely, etc., when they introduce examples or illustrations.


99. Copy two sentences that illustrate the first rule.

100. Punctuate :

1. It was now Miss Gilbert's office to engage the audience and her little troop of infantry was put through its evolutions and exercises, to the astonishment and delight of all beholders. - Holland.

In 1848, Donald G. Mitchell visited Europe for the second time and on his return he published "The Battle Summer."


The Colon (:)

101. The colon is used

1. Before an enumeration, or a quotation introduced by “as follows," or an equivalent expression.

EXAMPLE — “ The following persons were elected: President, Louis Mc. J. Lyte ; Vice President, Gilbert H. Lyte."

2. Sometimes, to separate the members of a compound sentence that are subdivided by semicolons. (71.)



102. Punctuate :

The Chair makes the following appointments Orator Edward Brooks Essayist Florence Dean.

The Period (.)

103. The period is used
1. After declarative and imperative sentences.
EXAMPLES. “ Truth is mighty.” “Let there be light.”

2. After abbreviations, headings, Arabic figures used to number paragraphs, etc. (75.)

ist, 2d, 3d, 4th, 29th, etc., are not abbreviations.

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The Interrogation Point (?)

106. The interrogation point is used after questions.

EXAMPLES. “Who won the battle of Fredericksburg?” “My father! must I stay?' shouted he.”


107. Copy two sentences that illustrate this rule. 108. Punctuate :

1. What is truth 2. Pilate asked “What is truth” 3. “What is truth ” Pilate asked. 4. Who asked “What is truth” 5. Where is my wife Elizabeth

The Exclamation Point (!) 109. The exclamation point is used after expressions that denote strong emotion.

EXAMPLES. “ How time flies!" “Alas, poor Yorick!”

The interjection 0 is called the vocative O, and is not directly followed by any point; as, “O stay!” The interjection oh is called the emotional oh, and is followed by an exclamation point or a comma; as, “Oh, how lovely!” “Oh! I am ruined.”

The Dash (4)

110. The dash is used


I. Sometimes, to set off a parenthetical expression. EXAMPLE. I ought to presume and it costs me nothing to do

that he abundantly deserves the esteem, etc. Burke. 2. To denote a sudden change of thought. EXAMPLE. — “« Bring me the’ – but he suddenly disappeared.”

3. At the end of a line, to show that the sense is not complete. (145.)

4. At the end of a quotation, before the name of the author. (u, Ex.)

Marks of Parenthesis () 111. Marks of parenthesis are used to inclose a remark or explanation that has no essential connection with the rest of the sentence. EXAMPLE. Know, then, this truth, (enough for man to know,)

Virtue alone is happiness below. Pope.

Brackets []

112. Brackets are used to inclose a remark or correction made by some one not the author.

EXAMPLES. The chairman of the committee [Mr. Smith] presented the bill." “ Thiu wages of sin is [arej death."

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Quotation Marks ("") 113. Quotation marks are used to inclose quoted expressions.

EXAMPLES Did Galileo say, “Nevertheless it does move"? “Now," he said, “is your time."

A quotation within a quotation in double marks is inclosed in single marks, and vice versa; as, “The teacher asked, “Did Galileo say,

Nevertheless it does move"?,?? “« Dickens's “Old Curiosity Shop," ! said he, “is very interesting.'




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114. Copy sentences that illustrate the use of exclamation points, marks of parenthesis, and quotation marks

115. Punctuate :

I Who wrote The Present Crisis 2 The lady asked Who wrote The Present Crisis 3 By whom asked the LYTE'S ADV. GR. AND COMP. --

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