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(O'erthrows him.) Who is probably a conjunctive pronoun (having the sense of whoso). Pope has a number of similar examples, which seem to be an imitation of Latin usage; as, “To help who want, to forward who excel,” etc.

3. Irregular constructions; as, The Pope he was saying the high, high mass. Scott.

4. Ancient or obsolete constructions; as, Breathes there the man with soul so dead ? Scott. (Does there breathe, etc.) The poor contents him with the care of heaven. Pope. (Him = himself.)

Many of the poetical selections that have been given contain these peculiarities.

EXERCISE

Which of the poetical selections in paragraphs 284 and 993 are inverted ? Which are abbreviated? Can you find any irregular constructions ? Ancient constructions ?

Mathematical Constructions

1013. The written language of mathematics consists mainly of symbols.

1014. Mathematical expressions are characterized by brevity. They contain many irregular constructions.

NUMBERS

1015. The names of numbers used abstractly are nouns in the singular number; as, “ Seventy-five is one half of one hundred and fifty.” “of 100 is 75.” “24 is of 2}." (Each sentence contains three nouns.

Point them out.) 1016. Fractional numbers are usually singular; as, “Three fourths of eight is six.”

Are is frequently used, and is probably allowable when is regarded as three times the fractional number į instead of the fractional number. Thus, “one fourth of eight is two, and three fourths of eight

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are three times two, or six.” Here three may be considered an adjective modifying the noun fourths. But “three fourths of eight is six." Here three fourths is a noun.

1017. When used concretely, integral and mixed numbers are numeral adjectives; as, Twenty-five dollars," “ Iš liquid quarts."

1018. Fractional numbers should not be used as adjectives except in combination with integers.

We should not say i pint, i dollars, 1 bushels, .6 gallons, but į of a pint, three fourths of a dollar (not three fourth), seven halves of a bushel, six tenths of a gallon. (“ | pt.,” “bu.," etc., are frequently written, but in construing the words, of should be supplied.)

But we may say one and one half dollars, two and three fourths (not fourth) bushels, 3. dozen, etc. (3 = three and five sixths.) In these constructions the mixed numbers are numerical adjectives. “I liter equals 2.113 American pints."

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THE FOUR FUNDAMENTAL RULES

1019. “3 + 2 = 5.” Three plus two equals five three (with) two more equals five. Plus is an adjective modifying two. So also, 5 plus 2 is 7. Are is also frequently used. If are is correct, 3 + 2 = 3 (and) 2 more. “4 and 3 are 7" is grammatically correct. “3 apples + 2 apples equal 5 apples,” since the first noun apples is the subject.

Equals or equal is to be preferred to is or are in reading equations, except possibly in the multiplication table. Here for euphony we say “ 5 times I is 5,” “ 5 times two is 10,” etc. (1021.) 1020. 66

3." Five minus two equals three; five (with) two less equals three. Minus is used like plus. So also 5 - 2 is 3. Are is also sometimes used; but its use is to be questioned. 5 apples minus two apples equal 3 apples, since the first noun apples is the subject.

1021. “5 X 2 = 10.” Five times two equals ten; or, five times two is ten. Two (taken) five times equals ten. “ 5 times 2 are 10" is frequently used. But we say “5 times the number is (not are) 10"; “5. times the son's age equals (not equal) the father's."

1022. “10 = 2 = 5." Ten divided by two equals five.

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ALGEBRAIC AND GEOMETRIC EXPRESSIONS

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OUTLINE

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noun.

1023. “x2 + y2 = 10." x squared (with) y squared more equals 1o. (“x square ” is often used.) “3 x = 6.” Three times x = 6. = y2."

4 x (raised to the) fourth (power) divided by 4 equals y squared. (Do not say “x4 over 4.")

1024. "Z ABC + ZACB,” etc., angle ABC (with) angle ACB

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Cx Im more, etc. ABC is an appositive

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ABCD: Let ABCD be a polygon.

be_? 1025. “A:B::C:D:" A is to

polygonpr Bas C is to D; or, the ratio of A to B equals the ratio of C to D; or, A divided by B equals C divided by D.

1026. In “3 + 2 = 5,” “5 – 2 = 3,” “ 5 X 2 = 10," “10 = 2 = 5," “ x2 + y2 = 10," “ 3 x = 6," = y2," “ Z ABC + LACB : ZACD,

4 etc., it is not incorrect to regard each equation as made up of two nouns with the verb equals between them.

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ESSAYS AND ORATIONS

ESSAYS

1027. Essays are generally more formal and systematic than narratives or descriptions. They include a wide range of subjects, and differ greatly in length, method of treatment, and general style.

In writing essays upon abstract subjects, the following method of treatment will be of use to students :

Introduction. Preliminary remarks appropriate to the subject, and to the reader or audience.

General nature. Clear description of subject - definition, when necessary — compared with contrary.

Origin or cause. State and illustrate by examples, etc.

Its effects. Upon the individual — upon the community — illustrate by examples, quotations, anecdotes, etc.

Conclusion. Practical application- our duty — result, etc.

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1028. The steps necessary in writing an essay may be indicated somewhat as follows:

1. Select the subject. The subject must suit

(a) The writer. Do not take too broad a subject. Most young persons will write a better essay on “Duties of Children” or “Duties of Pupils” than on “Duty.”

(6) The hearer or reader. Essays to be read in a public assemblage must be adapted to the audience in both subject and matter.

2. Collect the material. When you have selected the subject, jot down all you know about it. Then surround it with questions. Suppose, for example, your subject is Modesty. Ask, What is modesty? How is it manifested? What are its characteristics? How can we tell a modest person? Does modesty forbid all self-esteem? Can it be acquired? Why are modest persons admired? What great men have been noted for modesty ? etc.

Think, talk, read, about modesty; but especially think about it. And think with notebook and pencil in hand. After the material is collected, the next step may be taken.

3. Arrange the material. The material that you have gathered may now be arranged somewhat as follows:

MODESTY

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Introduction. Many persons possess some peculiar virtue or vice — frugality, great love of truth the spendthrift, the vain person many noted for modesty? Nature. Definition - not ignorance of our own merits

nor distrust a fair and moderate estimate of our ability — a self-esteem below what we deserve — compared with bashfulness — with humility

- with conceit - a lovely trait of character — shown in actions and words.

Origin, how obtained, etc. Modesty partly inborn - may be acquired by proper study (“a scholar is always modest”) — by associating with persons superior to ourselves — by observing those who are not modest, etc.

Effects. It renders the mind susceptible to instruction and good counsel it prevents jealousy — it attracts, makes friends -- it is justly considered as associated with virtue. Conclusion. This virtue should be cultivated example of great

- immodesty in word or act always unjustifiable, etc. 4. Expand the material into a composition. Express your thoughts in the easiest and most natural way, observing rules for spelling, etc.

5. Read, criticise, and rewrite, if necessary. Look at every word to see whether it is used correctly and spelled correctly. See whether every sentence can be analyzed, and whether it is expressed in the best manner, and is punctuated properly. See that the parts are properly connected, that there are no abrupt breaks, etc.

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EXERCISE

1029. Write essays on the following subjects : 1. Modesty, following the outline given above. 2. Sleep.

Introduction. We are naturally active — require exercise — need rest — compare rest and idleness, etc.

Kinds. Ordinary sleep — dozing, etc.
Cause. Fatigue — exhaustion disease, etc.

Effects. Strengthens body and mind- - prevents utter exhaustion each morning we are refreshed troubles forgotten, etc.

Compared with death.

How to obtain sleep. Be industrious — sleep in well-ventilated rooms, in clean beds — be careful about eating and drinking — keep a clear conscience, etc.

3. Anger.

The passions in general. What is anger? - a species of insanity mental derangement - mental suffering - etymology of "passion," etc.

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