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It produces mortification, humiliation, remorse causes crime makes enemies — brings unhappiness is the source of war.

Our duty — self-control a virtue - “ He that is slow to anger," etc. 4. On the Treatment of Animals.

Man's superior organization — labor of animals — does the body require animal food ? — animals furnish clothing — is it right to destroy animals?— man should not be cruel — food and rest for working animals.

5. Habits. 6. Novel Reading. 7. Sunshine. 8. Irish Character. 9. The First Lie. 10. Make Haste Slowly. II. Bores. 12. Learn to Say No. 13. White Lies. 14. Politeness. 15. Never Too Late to Learn.


1030. The foregoing suggestions will be of service in the preparation of "orations." An oration is intended for public delivery. Its main object is to persuade others to think as the orator thinks. A few special suggestions may be of service:

1. The introduction should be modest, brief, and appropriate. The discussion should be concise and clear. The conclusion should be natural and strong. Remember that the “last word” is important.

2. The presentation of truth, the relation of incidents and anecdotes, descriptions of persons and places, argumentation, appeal to the feelings --- all these are appropriate in an oration, if the object of the oration is not lost sight of.

3. Remember that an oration is to be spoken not read. Always try to imagine what your audience will be, and write to influence them. Remember, too, that the manner of a speaker often makes as deep an impression as the thought he utters. Be natural. Do not rant. Pronounce distinctly. Do not “over-gesticulate.”



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A, An. “A man”; “An owl”; adj. “It cost ten cents a yard”; “ten cents an ounce"; prep., 930. “Catch me an thou canst”; sub. conj.

Above. “ The clouds above us”; prep. 6. The clouds above”; “ The above remarks"; adj. “They float above"; adv.

Adieu. Adieu! adieu! int.. “ He bade me adieu; noun.

Adjective Forms. In poetry, the adjective form of a word is frequently used as an adverb; as, “ The swallow sings sweet from her nest in the wall."

After. “He left after her"; prep. “ He left soon after"; adv. “He left after she came”; conj. adv.

Again. “Come again"; adv. “He came again and again"; ph. adv.

Ago. “She died eleven years ago"; adv. (Years, a. o. of ago.) “ He staid till a few minutes ago"; obj. of till. (Minutes, a. o. of ago.)

Alas. Alas for the man!” int. (Alas, I feel pity for the man!” or Alas, I am sorry for the man!")

Alike. “We are alike; adj. “We talk alike; adv.

All. All times”; “ All these”; All the books”; All ye”; adj. Ye all; All is lost”; “The city, cannon, and stores were all destroyed"; pron. “Our little all; noun. “ He is all alone”; “Cheeks all pale”; All heart they live. Milton; adv. “ They are all alone”; ambiguous.

All, any, enough, more, most, no, and some generally relate to quantity when used with or instead of a singular noun, and to number when used with or instead of a plural noun.

Alone. “ He walks alone; adv. “I am alone; “Let it (be) alone"; adj. “Man alone is endowed with reason,” should probably be, “Only man is endowed,” etc.


Any. “ Any one; adj. Any of us "; pron. “Is he any


? ។ adv.

As. “It is as cold as ice”; adv. “As cold as ice"; 6 He came as I left”; “Do as I do”; conj. adv. “ As he has come, I shall go”; “His appointment as clerk”; sub. conj. “ Such as I have," etc. ; rel. pron. “ He walks as if he were tired”; part of sub. conj. “ As to that,” etc.; part of prep. “ He, as well as I,” etc.; part of coör. conj.

As, in “His appointment as clerk," “ He went out as mate,” etc., generally called a "conjunction denoting apposition." It seems proper to say that as clerk is a conjunctive phrase modifying appointment, to which it is joined by as, and clerk is used in apposition with his (510). So, also, the conjunctive phrase as mate may be said to modify went, mate being also a modifier of he.

As follows may be construed as a phrase adverb (815). Probably, as is the subject of the verb in as appears, as concerns, and as regards. (Some grammarians supply it.)

Before. “They went before; adv. Go before him”; prep. “He came before I left”; conj. adv.

Below. “ The plain below us "; prep. “ The plain below"; adj. “ They went below"; adv. “They came from below; noun. So beneath.

Beside, besides. “Thou art beside thyself”; prep. Besides this”; prep. “And, besides, the Moor may unfold me to him”; adv. “All the world beside; adj.

Best. “This is best"; adj. “What can you best do?” adv.
Better. “ This is better"; adj. “What can you do better ?" adv.

Both. Both girls ”; Both these "; adj. or pron. “They both came ”; “The prince and the pauper are both his friends ”; pron. “He is both rich and lucky”; adv. (966, note 2).

But. “ I go, but I return”; coör. conj. Nobody should be sad but 1. Shak.; conj. (Supply should be sad.) This use of but is becoming obsolete, it now being considered a preposition in such constructions, and followed by the objective case. 66 There is but one God”; I can but die"; adv. “All but him had gone”; prep. “She did nothing but sing”; prep. “There is no flock, however watched or tended, But one dead lamb is there”;

sub. conj. (6 There is no fire



side, howsoe'er defended, But has one vacant chair”; rel. pron. (369). But for this,” etc.; part of prep. “ All but him have gone”; “She does nothing but sing ”; prep. (896). “Not but that I might have gone”; prep. (918, 3). But for this, he would have succeeded"; prep. “ They are but children ”; adv. em. (only). “I can but lament the result”; prep. (I n'am but a leude compilatour. — Chaucer.) “I can but try”; prep. (“I cannot do anything but try"; or, “I cannot do anything but I can try”; conj.) “The goat butted (verb) his head against the but (noun) of the tree.”

By. “We went by the church ”; prep. “We went by" ; Remain near by; adv.

; “ By the way, let me say,” etc.; “ By the bye, have you seen him lately?conj. phrase.

Conjunctive Adverbs. The conjunctive adverb is frequently incorrectly defined as “connecting two clauses and modifying a word in each clause.” The conjunctive adverb modifies a word in its own clause (i.e. the clause that it introduces), and joins the clause to the word that the clause modifies. Thus, in the sentence, “ The tree lies where it fell,” the adverb where modifies fell; and the clause where it fell modifies lies, to which it is joined by where. So, also, “ I know where it lies,” in which know is not modified adverbially.

Else. “ Any one else; “Nobody else; adj. “How else can he go?” “Come [or] else I shall go”; adv.

Enough. “I have enough; noun. “Men enough"; adj. “Old enough"; adv.

Errors of Speech. The commonest errors of speech consist of

1. The use of wrong words or expressions; as, “Do like I did,” for “ Do as I did.”

2. The use of unnecessary words; as, “I cannot go, I don't think,” for “I think I cannot go."

3. The omission of necessary words; as, “Neither my friends nor (my) enemies could say more.”

4. The wrong arrangement of words; as, “I only paid five dollars," for “ I paid only five dollars."

Every Every person ” ; adj. “And every care”; pron. obsolete. Every now and then”; adj., now and then nouns, or call the expression a phrase adverb.

Expletives. It, the preparatory pronoun (348, 2), and there, ihe adverb of position (819, 10), are frequently called expletives.

Factitive Predicate. This term is used by some grammarians to name the adjective or noun that follows the verbs make, call, etc., in such sentences as • He made the stick straight," “ They called him a traitor.(An object along with a predicate word qualifying it is taken specially often by a verb that is used in a factitive sense; that is, in the sense of making or causing or bringing about something by means of the action which the verb signifies. —W. D. Whitney.) In this work a distinction is drawn between verbs like make, belicve, etc. (272), in which the person or thing named by the noun following the verb is not made or believed, and verbs like appoint, call, etc. (171), in which the person or thing named by the noun following the verb is appointed or called. The sentence “ He made the path straight” is ambiguous. It may mean that he straightened the path (which was already made), or that he made the path, and it was straight. To express the first meaning, the sentence should be disposed of as explained in Art. 272. The second meaning is brought out as indicated in Art. 170 and Art. 200.

Far. A far country”; adj. Far away"; adv., mod. away. Far from the crowd”; adv., mod. the phrase. Thus far shalt thou go”; adv. (Thus, adv., mod. far.) “From far and near”; nouns.

Farewell. “A last farewell; noun. “ A farewell address "; adj. Farewell !int.

First. “She was first”; “ She came first; adj. First advise him”; adv. “He did hear that sound first; noun, in apposition with he if it means “He was the first to hear,” etc. If it means “ That sound was heard first,” it is an adverb. “Two reasons; first,” etc.; adj. “He must come, first, because," etc.; adv.

For. “ He took it for (a thing) granted”; prep.

Full. “It is full; “The full moon "; adj. Full many a gem”; adv.

Gender. The words uncle and aunt are remotely connected; as also are nephew and niece, lord and lady, etc. Countess is the feminine of count, the French name for earl. Man, in Anglo-Saxon, was in the common gender; woman was “wife-man,” or “weft-man,” that is, the




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