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It may be added that many grammarians who omit the potential mood omit also to make proper disposition of the verb phrases that are clearly explained by the use of this mood: Certain forms of possibility are expressed by auxiliary modal verbs with the infinitive. They need separate discussion, and are conveniently called a potential mode.
March (“Anglo-Saxon Grammar").
Properties. The number of properties of a part of speech is determined by the number of variations in form which it undergoes. Sometimes, however, a word varies in use but not in form; as, one sheep,” “ ten sheep”; “I saw James," " James saw me”; “I shall go,” “we shall go,” etc. In such instances the property of a word is determined by its use. In other cases the property may be told by the form as well as the use. Thus me is always said to be in the objective case, his and Henry's possessive, I nominative, etc. The failure to make the form correspond to the use gives rise to one of the chief classes of errors which it is within the province of the grammarian to correct.
Sometimes good usage sanctions a form which does not correspond to the variation in use, and then the name given to the property is determined by the variation in form; as, “ His being an Englishman," etc. Such constructions are generally explained by “special rules.”
Shall and will. Between shall and will there has been a longsustained rivalry, which still continues and in which will is ever slowly gaining. – Earle.
So. “Do it so”; adv. man. “So tired”; adv. deg. “Is that so ?” adj. “ So come along"; conj. 66 A dollar or so”; noun. So is frequently used to represent a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. When thus used, it may be called an adverb used as a noun, adjective, or adverb, or simply an adverb. That. “ All that came ";" It was I that did it”; rel. pron.
“ That is mine”; “I know that”; adj. pron. “I know that man”; adj. “I know that I can go”; “ He is wrong in that he did not go"; sub. conj. “ I saw several; that is, six or eight”; “ The method is wrong; that is to say, it will prove of no avail”; cl. conj. “We speak that we do know"; conj. pron., used in the sense of what.
The. “ The men”; adj. The (conj. adv.) more busy we are, the (adv.) more leisure we have. — Hazlitt.
Then. “I shall go then”; adv. “ Then remain at home tomorrow"; conj.
Till. “Remain till to-morrow”; “ Till then”; “ Till after the storm subsides "; prep. “Remain till he comes”; conj. adv.
Twofold use of words. Some words have a twofold use, being modified as one part of speech and used in construction as another. Thus, in “A green stone building," stone is a noun used as an adjective. As a noun it is modified by the adjective green ; as an adjective, it modifies the noun building. Other examples are found in “ A hundred men” (756, note); “ Last Saturday evening ”; “ Lower California gold”; “Cast iron railings,” etc.
Verb phrase. A term applied by some grammarians to verbs that consist of more than one word; as, shall go, was hurt, might have gone, etc. It may be appropriately applied to such combinations of words as more than hesitated," " was taken care of," " was replied to,” etc.
Strong and weak verbs. Verbs are sometimes classified according to the way in which their principal parts are formed into (1) verbs of the strong conjugation, and (2) verbs of the weak conjugation. Verbs of the strong conjugation form their past tense by changing the vowel sound of the root; as, blow, blew ; ride, rode ; sink, sank; fight, fought, etc. Verbs of the weak conjugation include all so-called regular verbs, and verbs that form their past tense by adding ed or t to the stem, the vowel taking the short sound in most cases; as, creep, crept; feed, fed ; buy, bought ; lend, lent, etc. This list also includes many verbs that do not change their form for the past tense; as, cost, cut, hit, hurt, thrust, etc. Regular verbs are also said to be verbs of the new conjugation. Many irregular verbs are verbs of the old conjugation.
Verbals. See non-finite verbs and verbals, page 322.
Weigh. “We weighed the package”; tr. verb. “It weighed three pounds”; int. verb. Pounds, a. 0.
Well. “A clear well”; noun. “Is she well ? " adj. “Well treated”; adv. “It wells out”; verb. “Well, let us go"; adv. used ind. or int. (845). “Well! well! Is it possible?” int.
What. “What am I?” int. pron. “What books has he?” int. adj. “ What wonders I see !” excl. adj. “ Return what you borrow"; conj. pron.
“I know what books he has”; conj. adj. 6 What [partly) with threats and what with entreaty, I succeeded”; adv. “What! am I your slave?” int. What should I stay? — Shak. ; adv. (= why). What you have spoke it may be so perchance. Shak.; probably a rel. pron. (ant., it).
“ Take that thine is.” “Take what is thine.” The regular expression formerly was “Take that what is thine.” (Cf. AS. Luke vi. 3 ; “þæt hwæt Daved dyde " that what David did.) In time the antecedent was dropped before what, and the clause introduced by it became a noun clause. It is not now good English to supply the antecedent : In some grammars what is called a compound relative. This is wrong and misleading. What is not even equivalent to that which. Mason. Frequently in using what there is an ellipsis : “ What does it matter) though I fail?” “What (does it matter) if he did ?” “I tell thee what (I think)!”
Which. “ The pen with which she wrote I prize”; rel. pron. “ Which is it?” int. pron. 66 Tell me which it is ;" conj. pron. “ Which one is it?” int. adj. “Tell me which one it is;" conj. adj. “Do you know which is which ?” The first which is a conj. pron. The word after the verb is a kind of indefinite pronoun, altogether peculiar. - Kerl. While. “Remain a' while”; “It is not worth while”; noun.
away the hour"; verb. “Listen while she sings "; conj. adv. Who. 6 Do
know the lady who came?" rel. pron. “Do you know who came?” conj. pron.
“Who came?” int. pron. Worth. “Slow rises worth," etc. ; noun. “Woe worth the day"; verb. (AS. weorthan to become.) “It is worth a dollar”; “To reign is worth ambition "; adj. (806, 13).
Would. “He would go”; aux. verb. “I would he were here"; prin. verb, tr. “Would God I were away!” The meaning seems to be “I wish to God I were away,” hence supply I and to.
Yesterday. “He came yesterday"; a. 0. (See 819, -3, Rem. 3.) “ His actions yesterday surprised us”; a. o. of the action word (noun) actions, or adj., modifying actions. “Yesterday was Sunday"; noun. “Our to-days and yesterdays"; noun.
Yet. “ Yet no one came”; conj. “No one has yet come"; adv.
1032. In the preparation of a debate, thesis, or other argumentative discourse, the following suggestions will be of service to the student :
1. Present the entire question. State the two sides to the question clearly and fairly.
2. State your position plainly.
3. State your arguments clearly, presenting facts and conclusions drawn from facts. Use apt illustrations. When you cite authorities, let them be trustworthy and well known. Present each argument separately. Arrange your arguments so as to produce the best impression. As a rule, the strongest arguments should be placed last.
4. State arguments that may be advanced by your opponents, and answer them.
5. Conclude with a brief summary of your arguments, showing their relation to each other and to the question under discussion.
6. Do not talk or write “against time.” Many good three-minute speeches become extremely poor when they are stretched out to ten minutes.
EXERCISE 1033. Let the teacher appoint four or more pupils to debate each of the following resolutions :
Resolved, That public amusements are beneficial.
Resolved, That the length of the school term should be months.
Resolved, That city life is preferable to country life.
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS AND
1034. I. Call imperfection what thou fanciest such. 2. Fall he that must, and live the rest.
4. He that is slow to anger is better than the mighty; and he that ruleth his spirit, than he that taketh a city.
- Prov. xvi. 32.
His praise, ye winds that from four quarters blow,
6. Whatsoever ye shall ask in my name, that will I do, that the Father may be glorified in the Son. - John xiv. 13. 7.
Whither, midst falling dew,
Thy solitary way?
Thy figure floats along.
Seek'st thou the plashy brink
On the chafed ocean side?