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lady was The Present Crisis written 4 The lady asked by whom The Present Crisis was written 5. I claim you old friend yawned the armchair This corner you know is your seat
Lowell 116. Explain the points used in your reading lesson. Your geography lesson. Your history lesson.
117. The apostrophe () is used to mark the possessive case of nouns (476) and to denote the omission of one or more letters (81).
118. The hyphen ( - ) is used to join the parts of many compound words, and to mark the division of a word into syllables; as, Spanish-American, re-cre-ate. It is also placed at the end of a line when one or more syllables of a word are taken to the next line. (122.)
119. The caret (^) is used in writing to show where words or letters are to be inserted.
120. The star (*), dagger (†), double dagger ( $), etc., are used as marks of reference.
121. Emphatic words are sometimes underscored.
122. In manuscripts, a line drawn under a word indicates italics; two lines, SMALL CAPITALS;. three lines, CAPITALS.
ELEMENTS AND ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES
123. A sentence is a combination of words used to make a complete statement, to ask a question, or to give a command.
SENTENCES CLASSED ACCORDING TO FORM
124. Read the following sentences :
1. Birds fly. 2. The sun is shining. 3. Men who are wise, act carefully. 4. The tree lies where it fell. 5. Knowledge comes, but Wisdom lingers. — Tennyson.
What is the subject of the first sentence? The predicate ? What words form a clause in the third sentence? In the fourth ? Of what two sentences is the fifth sentence composed ?
125. Sentences are divided, according to their form, into three classes : simple, complex, and compound.
126. A simple sentence is a sentence that contains but one subject and one predicate. Illustrate.
127. A complex sentence is a sentence that contains one or more clauses. (51.) Illustrate.
128. A compound sentence is a sentence composed of two or more sentences. Illustrate.
129. The sentences used to form a compound sentence are called members of the compound sentence.
It should be remembered that the term clause is loosely used in many text-books on rhetoric and grammar to name any part of a sentence containing a subject and predicate. The reasons for restricting the use of this term to subordinate propositions, and using the term member to name the coördinate parts of a compound sentence, are obvious.
130. A sentence that contains two or more subjects or predicates, and can be expanded into a compound sentence, may be called a contracted compound sentence; as, Days come and go” (= Days come and days go).
131. A sentence that contains two or more subjects, and can not be expanded into a compound sentence, may be called a partial compound sentence; as, “ Louis McJunkin and Gilbert Harding constitute the firm."
Contracted compound sentences and partial compound sentences are usually called simple sentences.
132. Which of the following sentences are simple, which complex, and which compound? Why ?
I. Sirius is a bright star. 2. How I wonder what you are! 3. I came, I saw, I conquered. 4. The Queen of Sheba, who had heard of the wisdom of Solomon, visited him. 5. The British army left America in 1782 and 1783, and in 1783 the American army was disbanded. 6. Love your enemies.
7. Observe the scope and design of the
writer. 8. Righteousness exalteth a nation, but sin is a reproach to any people. — Prov. xiv. 34. 9. I saw who came. 10. Men labor that they may become rich.
SENTENCES CLASSED ACCORDING TO USE
133. Read the following sentences :
1. Sirius is a bright star. 2. Is Sirius a bright star? 3. Boys, go to work. 4. How bright Sirius is! your letter is finished, bring it to me.
Which sentences are used to make statements ? Which one is used to ask a question? Which ones are used to give commands?
134. Sentences are divided, according to their use, into three classes : declarative, interrogative, and imperative.
135. A declarative sentence is a sentence used to make a statement. Illustrate.
136. An interrogative sentence is a sentence used to ask a question. Illustrate.
137. An imperative sentence is a sentence used to give a command. Illustrate.
138. Some declarative sentences are used to express a sudden thought or feeling, and may be called exclamatory sentences; as, “ How amiable are thy tabernacles!” An exclamatory sentence should be followed by an exclamation point. (109.)
139. Classify the following sentences according to form and use :
1. Give me liberty. 2. Do you love your enemies? 3. Do you know where Lucknow is? 4. The numerous harbors of Maine offer the best facilities for commerce. 5. Doubt vanished with Smoke, and Hope began with Flame. – Mitchell.
140. Read the following sentence : Diligent pupils improve rapidly.
What kind of sentence is this? What is its subject ? Its predicate? By what adjective is “pupils” modified ? By what adverb is “improve” modified ?
The answers to the foregoing questions may be given according to a certain form, as follows:
This is a simple, declarative sentence. Pupils is the subject; it is modified by diligent, an adjective. Improve is the predicate; it is modified by rapidly, an
pupils • adverb.
Diligent adj This statement is called the analysis of the improve P sentence. It may be expressed in writing, thus :
141. Analysis is the process of separating a sentence into the words, phrases, and clauses of which it is composed.
Analysis may be either written or oral. The written analysis of a sentence is conveniently and appropriately called an outline of the
The analysis of a sentence is really the analysis of the thought expressed by the sentence. When we say that one word is modified by another, we mean that the idea expressed by one word modifies the idea expressed by another word. Can you illustrate this? (28.)
142. The words, phrases, and clauses of which a sentence is composed are called its elements.