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A, an (not, without); as, apathy.
Ambi (both, double); as, ambidexter.
Ana (up, through); as, analysis.
Anti (against); as, antipathy.
Cata (down, over); as, catastrophe.
Dia (through); as, diameter.
En, em (in, on, at); as, emphasis.
Epi, ep (upon); as, epidemic.
Ex, ec (out of); as, exodus.

Hyper (above, over); as, hypercritical.
Hypo, hyp (under); as, hypothesis.
Meta, met (after, beyond); as, meta-

Para, par (beside); as, parallel.
Peri (round); as, perimeter.
Syn, sy, syl, sym (together, with); as,

synthesis, sympathy.



D (passive); as, deed, loved.
Dom (condition); as, freedom.
En (causative, diminutive, made of);

as, hasten, kitten, wooden. Er, ar, or (one that, instrument); as,

speaker, writer.

Ful (full of); as, mindful.
Less (free from, without); as, worthless.
Let, et (little, young); as, brooklet.
Ling (little, young); as, gosling.
Ly (like); as, suddenly.
Some (full of, making); as, quarrelsome.


Able, ible, ble (that may be, worthy of);

as, attainable, laudable. Acy (-ness, state of being); as, accuracy. Age (-ing, state of being, act of); as,

bondage. Al (of, pertaining to); as, manual. An, ean, ian, ane (in adjectives, of, per

taining to; in nouns, one who); as,

republican, European. Ance, ancy, ence, ency (act of, state of

being); as, acceptance. Ant, ent (in nouns, one that; in adjec

tives, -ing); as, assistant, pendent. Ary (in nouns, one that; in adjectives,

of, pertaining to); as, library, epis

tolary. Ate (in nouns, office, one that; in ad

jectives, having, -ed; in verbs, to make, to give, to put); as, legate, fortunate, incarcerate.

Dom (place in which dominion is exer

cised, rank, quality); as, kingdom,

wisdom. Eous (consisting of, like); as, igneous. Fy (to make); as, fortify. Ile (of, like, pertaining to); as, juvenile. Ine (one that); as, marine. Ion (act of, -ing, state of being); as,

invention. Ive (in nouns, one that; in adjectives,

having power); as, captive, active. Ment (act of, -ing, state of being); as,

accomplishment. Mony (state of being, that which); as,

matrimony. Or (one, that, -er, act of, -ing); as,

factor. Ous (full of, consisting of, like); as,

curious. Tude, ude (-ness); as, altitude.


Ac (of, pertaining to); as, elegiac,
Etic (causing, -ing); as, pathetic.
Ic (one that); as, critic.
Ism (state of being, -ing); as, barbarism.

Ist (one that); as, artist,
Y (in nouns, state of being; in adjec-



Agon, a combat.
Astron, a star.
Autos, one's self.
Basis, the base.
Bios, life.
Cardia, the heart.
Character, a mark.
Chronos, time.
Dis, di, two.
Duo, two.
Helios, the sun.
Hex, six.
Historia, history.
Hora, an hour.
Hydor, water.


Acer, sharp. Ager, field. Altus, high, deep. Amare, to love. Amplus, large. Anima, breath. Annus, year. Aqua, water. Arbor, tree. Artus, joint. Audire, to hear. Aurum, gold. Brevis, short. Cadere, to fall. Caedere, to cut. Canere, to sing.

tives, full of, consisting of, like); as, anarchy.

Logos, a word, reason, science.
Mater, Matros, mother.
Metron, a measure.
Monos, one, alone.
Octo, eight.
Orthos, right, straight.
Pater, patros, father.
Pathos, feeling.
Phos, photos, fire, light.
Poly, many
Schola, school,
Tetra, four.
Theos, a god.
Tonos, a sound, a stretching.
Typos, a type.

Capere, to take.
Caput, head.
Cedere, to go, to yield.
Celer, quick.
Centum, hundred.
Circum, round.
Clinare, to bend, to lean.
Corona, crown.
Corpus, body.
Credere, to believe.
Currere, cursum, to run.
Dens, tooth.
Dicere, dictum, to say,
Digitus, finger.
Dominus, master.
Ducere, ductum, to lead.

Facere, to make, to do.
Ferre, to bear.
Fides, faith.
Finis, end.
Fluere, fluxum, to flow.
Forma, form.
Fortis, strong.
Frangere, fractum, to break.
Frater, brother.
Gerere, gestum, to bear, to perform.
Grandis, large.
Gratia, grace.
Habere, to have.
Horrere, to shudder.
Judex, judge.
Jungere, junctum, to join.
Jurare, to swear.
Lapis, stone.
Latus, side.
Legere, lectum, to gather.
Liber, free.
Lingua, tongue.
Litera, letter.
Locus, place.
Loqui, to speak.
Magnus, great.
Manere, mansum, to remain.
Manus, hand.
Mater, mother.
M1ederi, to heal.
Medius, middle.
Mens, mentis, mind.
Mittere, missum, to send.
Mons, mountain.
Mors, mortis, death.
Movere, motum, to move.
Nasci, natus sum, to be born.
Navis, ship.
Noscere, to know.
Novus, new.
Numerus, number.
Octo, eight.
Oculus, eye.
Omnis, all.
Orbis, circle.
Par, equal.
Parere, to bring forth, prepare.

Pars, part.
Pater, father.
Patria, country.
Pax, pacis, peace.
Pellere, to drive.
Pendere, to hang.
Pes, pedis, foot.
Petere, petitum, to ask, seek.
Pingere, pictum, to paint.
Placere, to please.
Plicare, to fold.
Pondus, weight.
Ponere, positum, to place.
Portare, to carry.
Post, after.
Prehendere, to grasp.
Primus, first.
Pungere, punctum, to prick.
Qualis, of which kind.
Quantus, how great.
Quartus, fourth.
Queri, to complain.
Radius, ray.
Radix, root.
Ratio, reckoning.
Rogare, to ask.
Rumpere, ruptum, to break.
Sanctus, holy.
Satis, enough.
Scire, to know.
Scribere, scriptum, to write.
Secare, sectum, to cut.
Sentire, to feel, think.
Sequi, secutus, to follow.
Servus, slave.
Sistere, to stop, stand.
Sol, sun.
Solidus, solid.
Solus, alone.
Solvere, solutum, to loosen.
Sonus, sound.
Specere, spectum, to look.
Spirare, to breathe.
Struere, structum, to pile up.
Suadere, to advise.
Sumere, sumptum, to take.
Tangere, tactum, to touch.

Tegere, tectum, to cover.
Tempus, time.
Tendere, tensum, to stretch.
Tenere, tentum, to hold.
Terra, earth.
Trahere, tractum, to draw.
Unda, wave.
Unus, one.
Uti, usus, to use.
Valere, to be strong.
Vehere, vectum, to carry.
Venire, ventum, to come.

Verbum, word.
Vertere, versum, to turn.
Verus, true.
Videre, visum, to see.
Vir, man.
Vivere, victum, to live.
Vocare, to call.
Volo, I will; velle, to will.
Volvere, volutum, to roll.
Votare, votum, to vow.
Vulgus, common people.

Roots are frequently called stems; and the word root is sometimes restricted to certain primitive forms of speech from which words in related languages are derived.

Use the foregoing table (Appendix F) to teach pupils the etymology of words they find in their text-books. Place lists of words on the blackboard, to be analyzed into their component elements; as, abduction ; ab, away, ducere, to lead, ion, the act of, etc. Let pupils occasionally see how many words they can form from a given root; as, incline, declension, etc., from clinare. The table can also be used in other ways.




English grammar has no superior among the common school branches as a means of mental discipline; but it cannot take the place of a course of reading for general culture. Every pupil who uses this book should read a number of the best works of the best authors. Let the teacher ascertain what books can be obtained by his pupils, and select from those books the ones that will be most beneficial to the pupils. The teacher should also read to the school selections from standard authors, and lead the pupils to appreciate their beauty. The study of words their history, their etymology, their figurative as vell as literal use is both interesting and profitable. Do not lose sight of the fact that nothing can take the place of good literature in a course of study.


(Figures preceded by “p." refer to pages; other references are to paragraphs)


A, an, 750-759, 1031.

sentences modified by, 205, note;
Abbreviations, 75, 76; capitalized, 90; phrases used as, 238; position of,

chronological, p. 348; list of, p. 347 ; of 832–838; rules for, 842-845; selection
common names, p. 348; of titles, p. 347; of, 816; used as verbs, 813.
miscellaneous, p. 348; period after, Affixes, 308.
103, 2.

After, 1031.
Above, 1031.

Again, 1031.
Abridged clauses, analysis of, 275, 276; Ago, 1031.

definition of, 271; uses of, 273; verbs Ain't, 82.
used with, 272.

Alike, 1031.
Accounts, 1042.

All, 760, 1031.
Adieu, 1031.

Alone, 1031.
Adjectives, chief use of, 192; classes of, Analysis, definition of, 141; forms of,

744-748; clauses used as, 253; com- 148, etc.; kinds of, 141.
parison of, 767-788; complements of Any, p. 316.
verbs, 193, 196, 200; complements of Apostrophe, 81, 117, 476, 477.
verbals, 196, 198, 200; compound, 761; Appositive nouns and pronouns, 153,
conjunctive, 748, 4; 749; definition of, 508; position of, 516, 517; punctua-
31,740; definitive, 746; derivative, 762; tion of, 95, 3; rules for, 509-512.
descriptive, 745; interrogative, 748, 3; Are come, 619.
749; number of, 791, 792; numeral, As, 368, 973, p. 316.
748, 2; objective predicate, 200; pars. As follows, p. 316.
ing of, 804; participial, 747, 2; phrases As it were, 815.
used as, 236; position of, 793-799; pro- As well as, 954, 966.
nominal, 371; 748, 1; proper, 747, 1; At last, 815.
rules for, 802, 803; subjective predi-
cate, 193, 196; used absolutely, 198; Be, variations of, 609, 1.
used as nouns, 318; used for adverbs, Before, p. 316.

Below, p. 316.
Adverbs, chief use of, 202; classes of, Beside, besides, p. 316.

819; clauses used as, 255, 275; com- Best, p. 316.
parison of, 827-830; compound, 822; Better, p. 316.
definition of, 35, 811; derivative, 824; Biographical sketches, 911, 912.
modifying nouns and pronouns, 203; Both, 760; 819, 9; 964, 4; p. 316.
of emphasis, 204; 819, 9; of position, Brackets, 112.
206; 819, 10; other words used as, 812; Brevity, 1003-1007.
parsing of, 846; phrases, clauses, and | Business papers, 1039.

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