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143. The elements of a sentence may be divided into essential elements (the subject and predicate), modifying elements, conjunctive elements, and independent elements.

144 The subject with its modifiers is called by some authors the logical subject, or the complex or compound subject, and the subject (without modifiers) the grammatical subject, or the simple subject. The same distinction is sometimes made with respect to the predicate and its modifiers.

The following treatment of the analysis of sentences is designed to serve a double purpose: (1) to acquaint pupils with the structure of the English sentence, and thus enable them to understand written and oral composition, and (2) to train them in the power of analytic thought and deductive reasoning.

CHIEF USES OF THE PARTS OF SPEECH

ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE SENTENCES

NOUNS, PRONOUNS, AND VERBS

Verbs and their Subjects

145. In the sentences “Birds fly” and “He came,” the noun birds is the subject of the verb fly; and the pronoun he is the subject of the verb came. Birds and he are also the subjects of the sentences, and fly and came are the predicates. (21.) It may be seen that

146. Nouns and pronouns may be used as the subjects of verbs. (20.)

147. Nouns and pronouns thus used are called the subjects of the sentences of which the verbs are the predicates.

The way in which words are used in sentences is called their construction. The word construction means “ building together."

EXERCISES

148. Analyze the following sentences: 1. Music charms.

ORAL ANALYSIS

WRITTEN ANALYSIS

This is a simple, declarative sentence. Music is Music

SD the subject. Charms is the predicate.

| charms P 2. Must I stay? 3. Intelligence rules.

4. Study. 5. Gentle persons are greatly admired.2

1. You understood is the subject. In outlining, inclose it in parentheses. A sentence, the subject or the predicate of which is omitted, may be called elliptical.

2. In the fifth sentence, the subject persons is modified by the adjective gentle, and the predicate are admired is modified by the adverb greatly. (See 31 and 35.) Adjectives and adverbs thus used will frequently be found in the following exercises.

149. Copy or compose two sentences containing nouns used as the subjects of verbs. Two containing pronouns.

The exercises in copying and composing sentences in this Part are designed to aid pupils to learn to write sentences of various kinds complete in form, grammatically correct, and properly punctuated and capitalized. Examine for these points the sentences presented for analysis. In each subject commit to memory one or two sentences worth remembering.

Possessive Nouns and Pronouns

150. In “John's books," the noun John's modifies the noun books by denoting possession. So also the pronoun our in “our nation.” It may be seen that

Nouns and pronouns may modify other nouns and pronouns by denoting possession. When thus used they are called possessive nouns and pronouns.

EXERCISES

151. Analyze the following sentences :

1. My brother-in-law's valuable property was partly destroyed.

ORAL ANALYSIS

OUTLINE

This is a simple, declarative sentence. property Property is the subject; it is modified

brother-in-law's pn by brother-in-law's, a possessive noun, SD

My PP and valuable, an adjective. Brother-in

i valuable adj law's is modified by my, a possessive was destroyed P pronoun. Was destroyed is the predicate; it is modified by partly, an adverb.

2. Whose books were taken ? 3. General Jackson's forces were soon engaged. 4. Where did Longfellow's Evangeline live? 5. The old man's feeble footsteps slowly

partly adv

died away

152. Copy or compose three sentences containing possessive nouns.

Two containing possessive pronouns.

Appositive Nouns and Pronouns 153. In the sentence “ The poet Keats died young,” the noun Keats modifies the noun poet by representing the same person. It

may

be seen that Nouns and pronouns may modify other nouns and pronouns by representing the same person or thing. When thus used they are called appositive nouns and pronouns.

Appositive means “placed by the side of.”

EXERCISES 154. Analyze the following sentences :

1. The steamer Tallapoosa was lost. 2. I myself will go.

3. When did the painter Raphael live?

your
friend Sarah re-

steamer 8 turned? 5. Was our late President,

The adj General U. S. Grant, ever wounded ?

Tallapoosa I. General U, S. Grant is a noun. (11.)

OUTLINE

4. Has

an

Complements 155. In the sentence “Dogs bark,” nothing is needed to complete the sense; but if we say, “ Dogs chase or “Dogs are -," the sense is incomplete, and some word, as rabbits or cross, must be added to express the full meaning; thus: “Dogs chase rabbits,” or “Dogs are cross.' The words rabbits and cross are the complements of the verbs that they follow. And in the sentence “They desire to be soldiers," the word soldiers is needed after the verbal to be to complete the meaning, and is its complement. The word complement means "something that completes."

156. A complement is a noun, a pronoun, or an adjective, added to a verb or a verbal to complete the meaning.

157. A verb that requires a complement is called a verb of incomplete predication, or an incomplete predicate.

EXERCISE

158. Supply complements:

1. Longfellow was a 2. He wrote 3. Evangeline and Hiawatha are

4. I want to be an 5. To chase is

6. Whose is that? 7. Whose have you? 8. The child was called 9. Gibbon was an 10. Jefferson was elected

Subjective Predicate Nouns and Pronouns

159. In the sentence "Longfellow was a poet," the noun poet modifies the noun Longfellow by representing the same person, and it is also the complement of the verb Nouns and pronouns may be the complements of verbs and modify their subjects by representing the same person or thing. When thus used they are called subjective predicate nouns and pronouns. (508, 1, note 2.)

It
may

be seen that-

was.

EXERCISES

160. Analyze the following sentences :
I. Beaumont was Fletcher's colaborer.

ORAL ANALYSIS

OUTLINE

Was is the incomplete predicate. Its Beaumonts

SD complement is colaborer, a subjective was P. + predicate noun, which modifies Beau

colaborer 8 pm mont. Colaborer is modified, etc.

Fletcher's pn The complement of a verb that modifies its subject is written under the verb, beginning at the fourth letter. Add a small sign (+) to a verb or a verbal when it is incomplete.

As was has but three letters in it, a small dash is used on the line of writing in place of the fourth letter.

2. Sirius is a bright star. 3. Millard Fillmore was not elected President. 4. Was Charles chosen umpire? 5. The French emperor Napoleon was a great general.

161. Copy or compose three sentences containing subjective predicate nouns.

Subjective Predicate Nouns. (Continued) 162. In the sentence “ James wishes to become a scholar," the noun scholar modifies the noun James, and is also the complement of to become. The verbal to become is said to refer to the noun James. (Why? 860.) It may be seen that

Nouns and pronouns may be the complements of verbals, and modify the nouns and pronouns to which they refer

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