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204. The adverbs only, even, and merely are frequently used for this purpose; and when thus used, they are called adverbs of emphasis. (819, 9.)


205. Analyze the following sentences :
1. Even children sometimes deceive us.



Children is modified by even, an adverb of em- children phasis.

Even adv em 2. Even philosophers are sometimes mistaken. 3. They were merely children. 4. I saw him only. 5. Only I saw him.

6. I only saw him. 7. I saw only him. Adverbs are sometimes used to modify phrases and clauses; as, “ It fell just below the falls." Even if I were a beggar," etc. Sometimes sentences are said to be modified by adverbs; as, Truly, this is the Son of God.”

The Adverb of Position


206. In the sentence “No one is here,” the subject is found in its usual place before the predicate. But when the sentence begins with there, as in “There is no one here," the subject is placed after the predicate. It may be seen that

The adverb there is sometimes used simply to change the relative position of the subject and predicate of a sentence. When thus used, there is called an adverb of position.

There is the only word used for this purpose. It is also used as an adverb of place. (819, 10.)

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one :

no adj

There is an adverb of position. It is used to change the relative position of one and is. One is the subject, etc.



here adv


2. There are ten pupils here. 3. There is rest there.

In addition to the foregoing uses, a few adverbs are used also to ask questions; as,When was Florida discovered?” (820, 1.)

Some adverbs are used also to introduce clauses, and join them to the words that the clauses modify; as, “No one knows when the hour of death will come.” (820, 2.)


Heading of a Letter

208. The heading contains the post office address of the writer and the date of writing. It usually occupies two lines. If very short, it may be put on one line; and if very long, it may be put on three lines.

209. The heading should begin on the first ruled line of note or letter paper, or about an inch and a half from the top of the page. Each succeeding line should begin about an inch farther to the right than the preceding one.

210. In letters of friendship, the date is frequently written after the signature, beginning at the left margin of the sheet ; and the day of the month is written in letters instead of figures; as, November eighth, 1886, or, November eighth, eighteen hundred and eighty-six. (

(Eighth November is also used.)


211. Arrange the following headings properly. (See 190 for punctuation.)

1. Portland, Oregon, Nov. 8, 1886. 2. 9 East Orange St., Pine Hill, Fla., August II, 1899. 3. This letter is written at Wheeling, in West Virginia, on the 29th of June, 1899. 4. Jan. 19, 1898, Lancaster Co., Pa., Millersville. 5. Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, N. Y., May 4, 1889

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The Introduction

212. The introduction contains the name and the postoffice address of the person written to, and the salutation, or complimentary address.

213. Titles of respect and courtesy should be used in the address. Mr. is prefixed to a man's name; Messrs. to the names of several men; Miss to an unmarried woman's name; Misses to the names of several unmarried women; Mrs. to a married woman's name; Rev. to a clergyman's name, and Rev. Mr., if his Christian name is not used; Dr. to che name of the holder of the degree of LL.D., D.D., Ph.D., or M.D.; Prof., sometimes, to the name of a person at the head of a department in an advanced institution of learning. Esq. is generally placed after a lawyer's name, and frequently after other gentlemen's names.

Members of the Society of Friends do not use titles, as a rule.

Do not misuse titles, particularly the title Prof. Do not write, Mr. John Smith, Esg. When LL.D., D.D., Ph.D., or M.D. is placed after the name, the title Dr. must of course be omitted.

In addition to the foregoing titles, military titles, and many others, are in common use.

214. The salutation is the term of politeness or respect with which we begin the body of a letter. Strangers may be addressed as Dear Sir, Dear Madam, etc.; friends as My dear Sir, My dear Madam, Dear Friend, etc.; and near relatives and other dear friends as My dear Wife, My dear Mary, Dearest Caroline, etc.

The salutation generally used in business letters is Dear Sir (or Dear Sirs), or Dear Madam (or Ladies). Sir and Madam are very formal.

The salutation should not be too familiar. It should not contain any abbreviations. The word “ Gents” should never be used.

215. The arrangement of the name and address is the same as that of the heading. The first part of the name, or the title, should begin at the marginal line. In business letters, the name and address are generally written immediately after the heading; in letters of friendship, they should be written last.

It may

216. The salutation is written on the line below the address (or the heading, if the address is written last). It should begin as far to the right as the other paragraphs of the letter.

be remarked here that the title Mr., Mrs., or Miss is generally used before the name when speaking to, as well as of, a person. The title Dr. is used (in America) in speaking to a physician. Rev., Hon., and Esq. should not be used in speaking to a person. If the much-abused title of Professor is used, be sure that the person to whom it is applied is entitled to it.

Observe that Rev. and Hon. are adjectives, and must be preceded by the when used in speaking of a person. We may write “Rev. James Goodman,” “Hon. U. C. Sharp”; but these expressions must be read, “The reverend James Goodman,” “The honorable U. C. Sharp.” “Rev. Mr. Goodman” is correct; but not “ Rev. Goodman."


217. Arrange the following headings and introductions properly:

1. Millersville, Lancaster Co., Pa., April 1, 1898. Messrs. Smith & Jones, Milwaukee, Wis. Dear Sirs. 2. This letter is written by Joshua L. Lyte, at No. 11 North Lime Street, in the city of Lancaster, Pa., to his brother, Francis A. Lyte, whose place of business is 301 Central Avenue, Minneapolis, Minn.

218. Write a salutation for a letter to

1. Your father. 2. A near friend. 3. A schoolmate. 4. A business firm. 5. A distant relative.


Verbals used as Nouns


219. Explain the use of the following verbals, and analyze 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7.

1. This day will I begin to magnify thee. Joshua iii. 7.



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Will begin is the incomplete predi


SD cate. Its complement is to magnify, will begin p + an incomplete verbal used as a di

to magnify tldo + rect object, by which it is modified.

thee do The complement of to magnify is

daya thee, etc.

This adj 2. To do right is not easy. 3. Trying to do a good deed is doing a good deed. 4. What do you expect to gain by trying to defeat the measure ? 5. It is wrong to steal.1

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