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6. Hornblende differs from mica in being brittle. 7. It is a difficult task to root out old errors.

1. VI. a. n., modifying it. 220. Copy or compose two sentences containing verbals used as nouns.

Verbals used as Adjectives


221. Explain the use of the following verbals, and analyse 1, 2, 4, and 6.

1. The British Government made extensive preparations to crush the rebellion.




Preparations is modified by extensive, an preparations adjective, and to crush, an incomplete verbal extensive adj used as an adjective, etc.

to crush vladj 2. A soldier lay dying. 3. The slate used for roofing houses is a kind of stone. 4. A kind act done quickly is done twice. 5. Magnetite is an iron-black ore of iron, having a black powder. Dana.

Dana. 6. A man trying to do his duty is a man to be admired. 7. Ney's passage of the frozen Dnieper was one of the most daring feats recorded in history.

222. Copy or compose two sentences containing verbals used as adjectives.

Verbals used as Adverbs


223. Analyze the following sentences :

1. Marmion stopped to bid adieu. 2. Mortier abandoned the city to join Napoleon. 3. Hearing a noise, I looked around. 4. The man came running. 5. Jo is very glad to see his old friend. 6. To obtain money to join the First Crusade, Robert sold his duchy.

224. Copy or compose two sentences containing verbals used as adverbs.

Verbals. (Continued)


225. Analyze the following sentences:

1. James wishes to be- 2. To become a scholar come a scholar.

requires study.

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The complement of to become To become is an incomplete veris scholar, a subjective predicate bal used as the subject. Its comnoun, which modifies James. plement is scholar, a noun used

absolutely. 3. They endeavored to elect Mr. Brown president.



Endeavored is the incomplete


endeavored + predicate. Its complement is to

to elect vldo + + elect, an incomplete verbal used

Mr. Brown do as the direct object, by which it is modified. The complements

president opn of to elect are Mr. Brown, a direct object, by which it is modified, and president, an objective predicate noun, which modifies Mr. Brown.

4. Some persons wished to crown Washington king. 5. We tried to bleach the linen white. 6. Washington


did not desire to be crowned king. 7. To be called a Christian was once a reproach. 8. To be employed is to be happy.? 9. How often we resolve to be better!3

2. Adj. ab., 198. 3. 196.

I. 200.


Conjunctions joining Words


226. Analyze the following sentences :
1. When did the French conquer Milan and Genoa ?



Did conquer is the incomplete predicate. Frenchs Its complements are Milan and Genoa, direct S In

the adj objects, by which it is modified. They are did conquer P + joined by and, a coördinate conjunction.


andec 2. They are wise and good men.

Genoa do

When adv Men is modified by wise and honorable, adjec

OUTLINE tives joined by and, a coördinate conjunction.

wise adj 3. We are two travelers, Roger and I.

and cc 4. Some days must be dark and dreary.

good adj 5. Saturn has large rings and belts.





Ring's and belts are joined by and, a coördinate conjunction, and modified by large, an adjective.

The sign + is used as a reference sign when a word modifies two or more words. In the foregoing sentence, the position of large shows that it modifies rings; the sign before it, in connection with the sign under belts, shows that it also modifies belts.

has P +

rings do

+' large adj

and cc belts do



Reference signs are used in pairs. Each one of a pair is marked with a prime ('), a second ("), or a third ("''), for convenience of reference.

6. Old soldiers fight very cautiously as well as courageously. 7. Do you know the moon's weight and size ? 8. How regularly and rapidly the earth moves! 9. Loan oft loses bothitself and friend. Shak.

1. As well as is a coördinate conjunction. See Index. 2. Both modifies the words joined by and. (819, 9, note.)


227. Copy or compose a sentence in which nouns joined by a coördinate conjunction. One in which adjectives are joined. One in which adverbs are joined.

Coördinate conjunctions are also used to join –

Phrases; as, “ His goodness is seen in the heavens above and in the earth beneath.(238, 3.)

Sentences; as, Slight small injuries, and they will become none at all. Fuller. (277.)

Clauses; as, “ John the Good was succeeded by his son Charles the Wise, who was of a peaceful disposition, and whose measures did much to restore prosperity in France." (257, 5.)

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not adv

This is a simple, declarative sentence. But is

But co a coördinate conjunction; it is used simply to


SD introduce the sentence. He is the subject, etc.

came P And Maud forgot her brier-torn gown,

And her graceful ankles, bare and brown. 3. He left. But did he remain away? 1

1. No. 3 contains two sentences not connected.




229. Analyze the following sentences : 1. He has gone? Yes. 2. He came too late, alas !

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3. Are our minds limited ? Yes. 4. Can matter be destroyed ? No. 5. Oh, name him not! 6. Alas, Cæsar must bleed! 7.

Ah! and should not life be gay?
Yes, Aurelia come away. — Dyer.


Conclusion of a Letter

230. The Conclusion contains the complimentary close and the signature.

231. Like the salutation, the complimentary close should not be too familiar. In letters of friendship one may use Your sincere friend, Yours affectionately, Your loving son, etc. In business letters the complimentary close is usually Yours truly or Yours respectfully. Very is sometimes added, as, Yours very truly; and sometimes the order of the words is changed, as, Respectfully yours.

232. The signature should be plainly written. In sign ing business letters and other business papers, men may

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