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use initials instead of the Christian name; women should never do so. Avoid nicknames.

In writing to an entire stranger, a married woman should sign her own name, and, after the signature, give her address in full; as, “ Address: Mrs. John Brown, Nantucket, Mass.” An unmarried woman should write before her name the title “ Miss,” inclosed in brackets.

233. The complimentary close is written on the line below the end of the body of the letter. The signature is written on the line below the close, near the right-hand edge of the sheet. The close and the signature should slope to the right, like the heading and address.

Do not close a letter with “ Yours, etc." Do not say “Yours respectively."


234. Write a conclusion for a letter to

1. Your father. 2. A near friend. 3. A schoolmate. 4. A business firm. 5. A distant relative.



235. In the sentence “ Education is the evolution of power,” the preposition of introduces the phrase of power, and joins it to the noun evolution, which the phrase modifies. And in “Toward the earth's center is called down," the preposition toward introduces the phrase toward center. It may

be seen that Phrases are introduced by prepositions.

Phrases used as Adjectives


236. Analyze the following sentences :

1. The layers of most stratified rocks were originally horizontal.



Layers is the subject. It is modified by the, an adjective, and of rocks, a phrase used as an adjective. Of is a preposition, and rocks is its object.

layers 8

The adj

of P rockso SD


most adj

stratified adj were pt

originally adv
horizontal spa

Phrases are written under the words that they modify, the words introducing them beginning about the space of four letters to the right.

2. The great hope of society is individual character. Channing. 3. A bird in the hand is worth1 two in the bush. 4. The Cañon of the Colorado is a gorge two hundred 2 miles long 3 5. Igneous rocks cover thousands of square miles of the western slope of the Rocky Mountains. 1. S. p. a.; p. 326. 2. A. o. of long.

3. It modifies gorge. 237. Copy or compose two sentences containing phrases used as adjectives.

Phrases used as Adverbs



238. Analyze the following sentences : 1. Perfection is attained by slow

| Perfections degrees. 2. By his victory at Ross- SD

is attained p bach, Frederick the Great 1 recov

by p degrees o ered the whole of Saxony.

slow adj


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7. Leaves expose the sap of plants to air and light. 8. Even from out? thy slime the monsters of the deep are made. 9. Learn to write business papers before attempting to transact business. 10. The capital of Pennsylvania is situated on the left bank of the Susquehanna river.

These delicates he heaped with glowing hand
On golden dishes and in baskets bright
Of wreathèd silver. — Keats.


2. From out is a preposition. Or,

1. Frederick the Great is the subject. 240, 3, 1.

239. Copy or compose two sentences containing phrases used as adverbs.

Phrases used as Nouns


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EXERCISE 240. Analyse

Towardp centero 1. Toward the earth's center is

earth's pn

SD called down. 2. Toward London

the adj is east. 3. He came from among

is called P + the people.

down spa 1. Among people is the object of from. Or, call from among a preposition.

Phrases used Independently



241. Analyse

– 1. In a word, you are wrong:

1. By an obvious ellipsis, the phrase is made independent.

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Folding of a Letter

242. The following simple directions may be of service:

Note paper is folded by turning the bottom up about one third of the length of the sheet, and bringing the top down over this, care being taken that the sides are even. The letter is inserted in the envelope by putting in first the edge last folded, the part of the letter last folded being next the back of the envelope.

Superscription of a Letter

243. The Superscription is the address that is put on the envelope. It consists of the name and title of the person to whom the letter is written, and his post office address.

244. The superscription should occupy three or four lines. The first line of the superscription should be written just below the middle of the envelope, beginning near the lefthand edge. The lines should slope to the right, as in the heading and address.

245. Direct plainly. Write the abbreviation of the State carefully. In writing to a person not living in a large city, give the post office, the county, and the State. If the person written to lives in a large city, give the door number and name of the street, the city, and the State.


246. Mark off on slate or paper the size of an envelope (about three and a quarter by five and a half inches), and direct a letter to

1. Mr. Charles H. Harding, 26 South 3d St., Philadelphia. 2. Louis C. Lyte, Esq., whose address is Birdin-Hand, Lancaster Co., Pa. 3. Mrs. Sarah J. Felton, residing in Osborne Hollow, which is in the State of New York, and in Broome Co. 4. H. S. Goodwin, Esq., General Superintendent of the Lehigh Valley Railroad, Bethlehem, Pa. 5. A physician by the name of O. I. Healall, whose residence is in Olympia, Washington.




247. In the sentence “I believe that exercise is beneficial,” the subordinate conjunction that introduces the clause that exercise is beneficial, and joins it to the verb

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