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believe, which the clause modifies. Other parts of speech may be used for the same purpose. Thus, in the sentence I know whom you saw,” the clause whom you saw modifies the verb know, to which it is joined by the pronoun whom. In the sentence “I cannot see what flowers are at my feet,” the clause what flowers are at my feet modifies the verb can see, to which it is joined by the adjective what. And in the sentence “The tree lies where it fell," the clause where it fell modifies the verb lies, to which it is joined by the adverb where. It may be seen that

Clauses may be introduced by subordinate conjunctions, pronouns, adjectives, or adverbs.

248. Words that introduce clauses and join them to the words that they modify, may be called subordinate conjunctives.

Remember that a subordinate conjunctive is a part of the clause which it introduces; and that if it is a pronoun, an adjective, or an adverb, it is construed with some word in the clause.

249. The following words are among those frequently used to introduce clauses, and join them to the words that they modify:

Subordinate conjunctions: if, because, that, than, whether, etc. (955.)

Pronouns: who, which, what, that, whoever, whichever, whoso, etc. (357)

Adjectives: which, whichever, what, whatever, etc. (748.)

Adverbs : when, where, as, before, how, etc. (820, 2.)

EXERCISES

250. Point out seven clauses in the following sentences, the words that they modify, and the subordinate conjunctives that introduce them :

1. He liveth long who liveth well. 2. Praise God, from whom all blessings flow. 3. Who shall decide when doctors disagree?- Pope. 4. The man who has planted a garden feels that he has done something for the good of the world. Warner. 5. I cannot see what flowers are at my feet.

Keats. 6. The first row of trammels and pothooks which the little Shearjashubs and Elkanahs blotted and blubbered across their copybooks was the preamble to the Declaration of Independence. — Lowell.

251. Copy or compose a sentence containing a subordinate conjunction. One containing a conjunctive pronoun. One containing a conjunctive adjective. One containing a conjunctive adverb.

Subordinate Conjunctives. (Continued)

252. In the sentence “That the earth is round is well known," the clause that the earth is round is the subject of the verb is known. The subordinate conjunction that is used simply to introduce the clause. The pronoun what and the adverb why are used for the same purpose in “What you do, should be done quickly;" "Why he went, is evident.” It may be seen that –

Subordinate conjunctives are sometimes used simply to introduce clauses

CLAUSES

Clauses used as Adjectives

EXERCISES

253. Analyse the following sentences:

1. An idler is a watch that wants both hands.

Cowper.

ORAL ANALYSIS

a

SSC

OUTLINE This is a complex, declarative sen

idler s tence, etc. Watch is modified by a, an Cx D

An adj adjective, and that wants both hands, a lis P. + clause used as an adjective. That is

watch spn the subject of the clause; it is used also

adj as a subordinate conjunctive. Plants

that

adj is the incomplete predicate; its com

wants P + plement is hands, etc.

hands do In outlining a clause, first select the word

both adj that it modifies, or with which it is construed. Then select its subject and predicate, and the word by which it is introduced, Clauses are written under the words that they modify, beginning about the space of four letters to the right.

OUTLINES

ad;

our PP

2. Those who play with edge tools must expect to be cut. 3. No pleasure from which our health suffers is innocent. 4. The province was named Pennsylvania, which means Penn's

healths woods. 5. Many of the men whose 2 inventions have been of great practi

suffers P cal value were mechanics. 6. I am

from P which 080 monarch of all I survey. 7. Kindness is the golden chain by which society of all is bound together. — Goethe. 8. The

survey P + sorrow for the dead 3 is the only sor

(that) do row from which we refuse to be di

adv

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adj

dosc

vorced. — Irving 9. General Kléber, whom Napoleon had left in command of the French army in Egypt, was assassinated by a fanatical Mohammedan.

We paused amid the pines that stood

The giants 4 of the waste. — Shelley.

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1. Notice carefully the place of from which in the outline. ject of for. 4. 159.

2. P. P., s.c. 3. Ob

254. Copy or compose three sentences containing clauses used as adjectives.

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6. Is it as wise to be great as it is to be good ?
wise spa
Its

(wise) spa
to be ul an +

as adv

as adv sc

great adj

7. Come as the winds come when navies are stranded.

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IO.

8. Love thy neighbor as thyself.3 9. The stoical scheme of supplying our wants by lopping off our desires, is like 4 cutting 5 off our feet when we want shoes. — Swift.

Some murmur when their sky is clear

And wholly bright to view,
If one small speck of dark appear

In their great heaven of blue. Trench. 1. Than wealth (is good) modifies better. 2. Where introduces an adjective clause. 3. 85. 4. 193. 5. Vl., i. 0.

256. Copy or compose three sentences containing clauses used as adverbs.

Clauses used as Nouns

EXERCISES

257. Analyze the following sentences
1. Do you believe that the earth is round?

ORAL ANALYSIS

OUTLINE

8

This is a complex, interrogative sentence. You is the subject. Do believe is the incomplete predicate. Its complement is that the earth is round, a clause used as a direct object, by which it is modified. That is a subordinate conjunction. Earth is the subject of the clause, etc.

| you Cx 112

Do believe P+

that sc earths

the adj lish-+

round spa

do

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