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believe, which the clause modifies. Other parts of speech may be used for the same purpose. Thus, in the sentence I know whom you saw,” the clause whom you saw modifies the verb know, to which it is joined by the pronoun whom. In the sentence “I cannot see what flowers are at my feet,” the clause what flowers are at my feet modifies the verb can see, to which it is joined by the adjective what. And in the sentence “The tree lies where it fell," the clause where it fell modifies the verb lies, to which it is joined by the adverb where. It may be seen that
Clauses may be introduced by subordinate conjunctions, pronouns, adjectives, or adverbs.
248. Words that introduce clauses and join them to the words that they modify, may be called subordinate conjunctives.
Remember that a subordinate conjunctive is a part of the clause which it introduces; and that if it is a pronoun, an adjective, or an adverb, it is construed with some word in the clause.
249. The following words are among those frequently used to introduce clauses, and join them to the words that they modify:
Subordinate conjunctions: if, because, that, than, whether, etc. (955.)
Pronouns: who, which, what, that, whoever, whichever, whoso, etc. (357)
Adjectives: which, whichever, what, whatever, etc. (748.)
Adverbs : when, where, as, before, how, etc. (820, 2.)
250. Point out seven clauses in the following sentences, the words that they modify, and the subordinate conjunctives that introduce them :
1. He liveth long who liveth well. 2. Praise God, from whom all blessings flow. 3. Who shall decide when doctors disagree?- Pope. 4. The man who has planted a garden feels that he has done something for the good of the world. Warner. 5. I cannot see what flowers are at my feet.
Keats. 6. The first row of trammels and pothooks which the little Shearjashubs and Elkanahs blotted and blubbered across their copybooks was the preamble to the Declaration of Independence. — Lowell.
251. Copy or compose a sentence containing a subordinate conjunction. One containing a conjunctive pronoun. One containing a conjunctive adjective. One containing a conjunctive adverb.
Subordinate Conjunctives. (Continued)
252. In the sentence “That the earth is round is well known," the clause that the earth is round is the subject of the verb is known. The subordinate conjunction that is used simply to introduce the clause. The pronoun what and the adverb why are used for the same purpose in “What you do, should be done quickly;" "Why he went, is evident.” It may be seen that –
Subordinate conjunctives are sometimes used simply to introduce clauses
Clauses used as Adjectives
253. Analyse the following sentences:
1. An idler is a watch that wants both hands.
OUTLINE This is a complex, declarative sen
idler s tence, etc. Watch is modified by a, an Cx D
An adj adjective, and that wants both hands, a lis P. + clause used as an adjective. That is
watch spn the subject of the clause; it is used also
adj as a subordinate conjunctive. Plants
adj is the incomplete predicate; its com
wants P + plement is hands, etc.
hands do In outlining a clause, first select the word
both adj that it modifies, or with which it is construed. Then select its subject and predicate, and the word by which it is introduced, Clauses are written under the words that they modify, beginning about the space of four letters to the right.
2. Those who play with edge tools must expect to be cut. 3. No pleasure from which our health suffers is innocent. 4. The province was named Pennsylvania, which means Penn's
healths woods. 5. Many of the men whose 2 inventions have been of great practi
suffers P cal value were mechanics. 6. I am
from P which 080 monarch of all I survey. 7. Kindness is the golden chain by which society of all is bound together. — Goethe. 8. The
survey P + sorrow for the dead 3 is the only sor
(that) do row from which we refuse to be di
vorced. — Irving 9. General Kléber, whom Napoleon had left in command of the French army in Egypt, was assassinated by a fanatical Mohammedan.
We paused amid the pines that stood
The giants 4 of the waste. — Shelley.
1. Notice carefully the place of from which in the outline. ject of for. 4. 159.
2. P. P., s.c. 3. Ob
254. Copy or compose three sentences containing clauses used as adjectives.
6. Is it as wise to be great as it is to be good ?
as adv sc
great adj að
7. Come as the winds come when navies are stranded.
8. Love thy neighbor as thyself.3 9. The stoical scheme of supplying our wants by lopping off our desires, is like 4 cutting 5 off our feet when we want shoes. — Swift.
Some murmur when their sky is clear
And wholly bright to view,
In their great heaven of blue. Trench. 1. Than wealth (is good) modifies better. 2. Where introduces an adjective clause. 3. 85. 4. 193. 5. Vl., i. 0.
256. Copy or compose three sentences containing clauses used as adverbs.
Clauses used as Nouns
257. Analyze the following sentences
This is a complex, interrogative sentence. You is the subject. Do believe is the incomplete predicate. Its complement is that the earth is round, a clause used as a direct object, by which it is modified. That is a subordinate conjunction. Earth is the subject of the clause, etc.
| you Cx 112
Do believe P+
that sc earths
the adj lish-+