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4. An answer, accepting the foregoing invitation.

5. An answer, thanking your friend for the invitation, and expressing regret that it is impossible for you to accept it.


270. The three essential parts of an unabridged clause are the subject, the predicate, and the subordinate conjunctive. (51, 248.)

Sometimes the subordinate conjunctive is omitted, and should be supplied; as “I am sure (that) be did it.” “ The soldiers (that) they captured were Hessians.” “Were I you, I would go” (=If I were you, I would go).

271. Some clauses have only two essential parts, the subject and the predicate. They are called abridged clauses.

EXAMPLES. — “I desire him to go.” “ Spring having come, all nature is clothed in beauty.” “ Let him go."

272. The verbs believe, consider, declare, make, think, and some others, are sometimes followed by abridged clauses in which the verb to be is understood; as, “I believed him my friend” (=I believed him to be my friend). “He thought me (to be) wrong."

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273. In some sentences an abridged clause can be used in place of a clause containing three essential parts without varying the sense; as, “I believed him to be dead( = that he was dead). Spring having come, all nature is clothed in beauty” (= As spring has come, etc.). finds the task to be difficult(=that the task is difficult). “I find them (to be) good men and true(=that they are,

“ He

etc.). “The engineer ordered the signal to be given(=that the signal be given). The troops were reported to have been engaged(= That the troops were engaged, was reported).

But it is often impossible to substitute an unabridged ciause for the abridged clause without changing the sense, and sometimes no substitution can be made. EXAMPLES. —“He felt himself sinking” (almost equivalent to “He felt that he was sinking). “I heard her sing" (not “I heard that she sang ). “I saw them run." "I saw them running." “ Let us go.

“Hath not old custom made this life ( to be more sweet?" “It is too warm for them to travel.

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274. It must be remembered (1) that the term abridged clause is appropriately applied to these clauses because they have but two essential parts, and (2) that an abridged clause is not a mere abridgment of a clause.

Abridged Clauses used as Adverbs


275. Analyze the following sentences:
1. This done, repair to Pompey's porch.

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virtue is lost. 4. He being a foreigner, his family was protected 5. This said, he sat down. 6. The ammunition being exhausted, the troops surrendered. 7. You sleep in peace, the tyrant being slain. - Shak. 8. The cat away, the mice play. 9. These injuries having been comforted internally, Mr. Pecksniff having been comforted externally, they sat down. 10. The soldiers being alert, the fort was not attacked.


My story being done,
She gave me for my pains a world of sighs. — Shak.

Abridged Clauses used as Nouns


276. Analyze the following sentences :
1. Do you believe the earth to be round?

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him do

4. It is too warm for them to travel.



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is P +


warm pa

too adv

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Warm is modified by too, an ad


Cx D verb, and for them to travel, a phrase used as an adverb. For is a preposition, and them to travel is an abridged clause used as its object. Them is the

for p them subject of the clause, and to travel is

Ito travelp the predicate.

5. Let us go. 1 6. The rain causes the grass to grow. 7. He felt himself sinking. 8. He finds the task 2 difficult. 9. We did not hear of the troops crossing the river.3 10. All men think all men mortal but themselves. — Young. II. They made Claudius emperor.

12. Claudius was made emperor. 13. They are known to have perished among the icebergs. 14. Success depends upon his remaining true 4 to the cause. 15. A lively writer has not hesitated to pronounce 6 Colchis the Holland of antiquity.7 16. The soldiers being believed to be alert, the fort was not

I s

Cx D attacked. 17. I know where know to to go.8 18. The Son of Man hath not where to lay 'his head.

Ito go?

where adv 19. The general told them when to advance. 20. It was said of General Grant that he did not know how to retreat.



1. Go is the predicate of the clause, not to go. 2. Supply to be.

3. Is this sentence ambiguous? 4. S.p.a. 5. See Outline 4. The phrase to cause modifies true. 6. VI., adv. 7. What must be supplied? 8. Where to go is an abridged clause the subject of which is omitted. It is equivalent to where I shall go. Usually, the essential elements of an abridged clause are the subject and predicate. (271.) Under what conditions is the subject omitted?

Sometimes, though rarely, abridged clauses are used as adjectives; as, “ I met two men, each carrying a pistol.




277. Analyse the following sentences :

1. Doubt vanished with Smoke, and Hope began with Flame. Mitchell.

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2. To doubt is worse than to have lost; and to despair is but to antedate those miseries that must fall on us. Massinger.

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Space may sometimes be economized by writing the second member of a compound sentence to the right of the first, as shown above. The sign +' indicates the connection between the two members.

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