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the Cleveland order have introduced, not which men do, they should I not
Mr. and Mrs. Henry Sidgwick would sup-
ney has proposed a compromise in the The Exposition just opened at Nash- foim of the founding (by Oxford and ville commemorates the completion of a Cambridge) of a woman's university, to hundred years of existence for the State confer degrees on women who have passed of Tennessee. The exact centennial date examinations at Oxford or Cambridge or fell on June 1 of last year, and it was any other English university. This comoriginally intended to hold the Exposition promise, like many other compromises, in 1896, but for various reasons post would simply change the position of Camponement seemed desirable. Nashville bridge from that of a primary to that of itself was founded seventeen years before a secondary cause, without really shifting the admission of Tennessee as a State, its responsibility, and is not likely to be and on the appropriate date the city, accepted. The report of the syndicate now the thirty-e:ghth in size in the Union, appointed to inquire into the question celebrated its centenary. Tennessee has recommends that the women who fulfill in the past century increased her popula- conditions as to residence and as to extion more than sevenfold; it is now at aminations which are practically identical least 1,800,000. The present Exposition is with those required from men who are 10 described as being already nearly complete receive the honor degrees, shall receive -a novelty, indeed, in great expositions. the degree of Bachelor of Arts, and in A beautiful site was selected, and the due time the degree of Master of Arts, landscape gardener's art has made of it with the further proposal that, after a due a wonderfully attractive place, while the interval and upon the evidence of unusual architecture of the many buildings has scholarship through valuable or original been wisely subordinated to a harmonious contributions to science or letters, the and unified general result. Many of the degree of Doctor in Science or Letters sister States will exhibit liberally, and the should be conferred, and that honorary general Government has spent $130,000 in degrees in Arts, Law, Letters, Science, and providing for a United States Building Music should from time to time be conand filling it with National exhibits. The serred upon women of special distinction Exposition will last until October, and who have not met the usual conditions, during its existence there will be many but who are specially recommended for special meetings and conferences. An distinction, as in the case of men. In interesting feature will be the exhibits of other words, the syndicate proposes that, the negro race. The Outlook will print, so far as honors are concerned, the women later, articles from a special correspondent shall hereafter be placed on an equality commenting on whatever is most signifi- with men at the University of Cambridge, cant in the Exposition.
but the degrees so conferred are not to convey to women membership in the Uni
versity, or the right to participate in the The question of conterring degrees on management of its affairs. The matter women who have passed the degree ex
will be decided by vote some time during aminations is now up at Cambridge, as it the present month. was up last year at Oxford. English women, who have found that a degree is of great practical value, and who cannot The French have not been very sucunderstand why, having done the work cessful colonists. The race suffers from
nostalgia when it is far from France. Professor Harnack's New
the school of Baur.
Baur approached the New Testament It is characteristic of French intelli- with a theory—that there was in the gence to recognize the success of English Apostolic Church a hot battle between the methods in colonization, and equally char- Pauline and the Petrine factions, and that acteristic of that intelligence to endeavor a large proportion of the New Testament to make Frenchmen aware of the causes books were written in a polemical spirit, for this success. This was precisely what and as a makeweight in that controversy. was done in educational circles in France Wellhausen and Harnack approach the at the close of the great war.
Bible without any preconceived theory, periority of German methods was not only to ascertain, by a critical study of its recognized, but, with rare sagacity, an at- contents, in accordance with the literary tempt was made to adopt them in France, and bistorical canons applied to the with such modifications as the situation study of other literatures, what are the required. A distinguished American, dates, the objects, and the nature of the whose voice in public affairs always car various books, and who were their probries weight, said not long ago that the able authors. Applied to the Old Testacrying need in this country was knowledgement, this method has proved, to the satisof the facts. This knowledge it is almost faction of substantially all who employ it, impossible to get, because the newspapers that the Rabbinical traditions respecting are, as a rule, so partisan orso sensa the Old Testament are generally untrusttional in their methods that truth is the worthy and must be abandoned. Aplast thing they present to their readers; plied by Harnack to the New Testament, and yet truth is the one thing of which the this method indicates to his satisfaction world stands in supreme need. It has that the Christian traditions respecting plenty of passion, race prejudice, partisan the New Testament are largely trustfeeling; what it needs is intelligence. A worthy and may be accepted-albeit he new French journal, which is to be pub- corrects them in some important particulished fortnightly, will present a digest lars. from all the information received during The conclusion that the Christian tradi. that time of colonial movements and life. tions concerning the New Testament are It will aim to disseminate exact and trust- trustworthy is not in the least inconsistent worthy information about all matters in with the conclusion that the Rabbinical the colonies, and it will endeavor, through traditions concerning the Old Testament its editorials, to form and lead public are untrustworthy. Harnack is not an opinion. If the new journal succeeds in authority against either the literary and carrying out what it proposes, it will be- scientific method of Biblical criticism purcome educational in a very high degree, sued by such scholars as Wellhausen, and its example may well be followed in Cheyne, and Driver, or against the conother countries.
clusions which they have reached respect
ing the date and authorship of the Old it is everywhere recognized as an instruTestament books.
mentality for the general education of the Nor is there anything novel in the dis- community. If it does no more for a crediting of Baur. It would be difficult great many people than furnish the means to mention any thoroughly modern scholar of pleasure and of rest which come through who accepts Baur's conclusions or ap the reading of good fiction, it renders no proaches the New Testament with Baur's small service. Of course it does a great dogmatic presuppositions.
deal more than this for the community as The value of Harnack's work lies chiefly a whole; for it not only provides rest and in the fact that he pushes the dates of pleasure, but it also furnishes ample and some important events, such as Paul's multiplied means of instruction. Very conversion, and some important books, few people realize how much education such as First Corinthians, back nearer to is effected by good articles of travel or the resurrection of Jesus Christ than they popular accounts of scientific experiment have been heretofore placed, and makes it and discovery. But there is a special still more difficult than before to entertain service beyond these general contributhe opinion that belief in the resurrection tions to the whole community—the serwas the result of a dogmatic tendency or vice which is rendered in the offering of grew up as a myth. The “Watchman" opportunity to the exceptional boy or girl, is quite correct in saying that “it is man or woman, of unusual intelligence necessary for a tendency to have an op- and ability. portunity to crystallize, and for a myth Now, the good of the community is realto have time to grow.” The value ized, not only when the community mind of Dr. Harnack's volume is that it is fertilized by access to a free library, affords a new demonstration that there but when these exceptional minds are let was no opportunity for the " tendency,” out of narrow and hard conditions into of which Baur conceived, to crystallize, the freedom and power which come from and no time for the myth, into which culture. The community stands just as Strauss resolved the Gospel narratives, to much in need of the full development of grow. There is nothing novel even in this its highest intellect as in the full developconclusion, which the readers of The ment of its average intellect. A free Outlook have seen affirmed repeatedly in library which has helped one boy of genius its pages. Harnack's book is simply a to find himself and his power has amply testimony from an unprejudiced and com- justified the expenditure of all the time petent scholar, who has all his life pursued and money involved in its organization the scientific method in Biblical criticism, and support. Mrs. Ward recalled a miner to the fact that there was three or four whom she had known, who had worked years less time for a myth to grow than eleven hours a day for eleven days in previous scholars had supposed. Har- order to train himself to read a Greek nack's volume confirms the wisdom of ap- play with ease and accuracy; and doubtplying the scientific method to the study less Mrs. Ward could have recalled many of the Bible, because it shows that this other working men and women who have method ratifies the faith of the Church shown the same passion for knowledge in the great essential facts of the life, and the same power of acquiring it. Any passion, death, and resurrection of Jesus one who knows working people knows Christ.
with what pathetic avidity they often lay hold of such knowledge as comes in their
way, and what strides they make by pasAn Overlooked Service
sionate persistence and self-denial. Pro
fessor Huxley more than once expressed In a recent speech at the opening of a
his astonishment at the passion with free library Mrs. Humphry Ward empha- which so many workingmen gave up their sized a service rendered by such libra- scanty leisure to scientific study. The ries which is very frequently overlooked. exceptional mind in every community When the public library is discussed, its needs to be cared for quite as thoroughly relation to all classes of readers very nat as the average mind, and it ought not to urally and properly comes to the front; be forgotten by those who have charge
Chief cause of need.
of free libraries that every such library is Labor Statistics brings out strikingly the a possible university for the training of situation in that State. The returns givthe exceptional man and woman.
ing the number of employees and the ag-
1894. Employees. 149,000 132,000 116,000
Wages.... $72,575,000 $60,629,000 $48,268,000 The American Statistical Association In other words, though the average wages publishes the records of the Charity Or- of the hands while employed had fallen ganization Societies of New York, Balti- but 13 per cent. since 1892, the average more, and six smaller cities respecting number of men who were getting any the cause of need among the families wages at all had fallen 24 per cent. These whose condition was investigated last establishments were doubtless in indusyear. As charity organization societies tries which have suffered exceptionally are not commonly suspected of sentiment during the present depression, but no one alism, and as the various returns are in who looks into industrial conditions can substantial agreement, the body of evi- question that the wage-earners in the dence presented may be regarded as au cities have been suffering as keenly from thoritative. In a condensed form the the want of employment as farmers have results reached were as follows:
been suffering from the ruinous fall in Smaller prices. While, then, it should not be dis
guised that intemperance and shiftlessLack of employment..... 48
43 35 ness are perhaps the most fruitful sources Sickness...
17 of individual distress, it must also be Intemperance or shiftless.
recognized that the industrial system is
20 Miscellaneous causes. ...
so far out of joint that thousands of men What is notable about this table is that enforced idleness.
able and willing to work are living in in all these cities the want of employment was believed to be the cause of distiess in as many cases as sickness, intemperance, and shiftlessness combined. This, too, The Will to Believe it must be remembered, was among the families which applied to public charities Professor James, of Harvard Univerfor aid. Among those which have been sity, has published an admirable essay with aided by the trades-unions and by their the above caption in a volume of admiraown relatives, the proportion of those whose ble essays which bears the same general need was due to the want of regular work title. He shows very clearly, not merely was doubtless much larger. One labor that our opinions are affected by our union in this city paid “out-of-work ben- will, but that they ought to be so afefit” to over one thousand families during fected; that the “ will to believe" is as the greater part of the recent winter. important as the belief itself-perhaps we
It is true that in many of the cases should rather say more important; that, where want of employment has been the even in the case of the scientist, who is chief cause of need, intemperance or shift- supposed to be wholly free from those lessness has been a contributing cause to prejudices which popular error identifies the want of employment. When work is with the “will to believe," there is an slack in any business, it is, as a rule, the earnest determination to reach the truth. less efficient employees who are laid off. Without this action of the will the voyages These are likely to be the intemperate of a Darwin, the Alpine explorations of a and the shiftless. But during the last Tyndall, the researches in the Archipelthree years, in which entire factories have
ago of a Wallace, the investigations in the been shut down for weeks and months at biological laboratory of a Huxley, would a time, the unemployed have not been con have been impossible. Belief is not a fined to the inefficient classes. The last mere lazy intellectual acceptance of an report of the Pennsylvania Bureau of opinion forced upon an indifferent listener,
It is the result of serious endeavor, a that there were a life of love and service, product of will intelligently directed. worth immortality, and that he might make
In the religious realm the “will to be- it his own ; that there were some
Trinity and Its Work
day with that remote past when it was a For it is in the will rather than in the provincial town in a small colony. Trinity intellect that moral quality lies. He who Church has passed through every phase desires to believe that Love is the Ruler of our municipal history, has become of the universe, and is strenuous to bring powerful in activities of various kinds by his life into harmony with the law of love, a long and quiet process of growth, and is better than he who believes, or thinks has come to hold a vast inheritance by he believes, that God is love and does not virtue of its long kinship to the prosperity care whether He is or not. He who de- of the foremost city on the continent. sires to find some clearer unveiling of Belonging to a conservative and historic God than he can find in Nature or in the Church, it represents in a unique way the consciousness of his own soul, has a bet- tradition of religious life in the city. ter faith than he who believes, or thinks Other churches, born with it, have folbe believes, that the Bible is an infallible lowed the currents of population, and rerevelation from God, and never reads it. built themselves in newer parts of the city; He who feels the burden of his past guilt in her different chapels, which are large and the hindrance of his present imper- and splendid edifices, Trinity has moved fection, and has the will to believe in a with the tide, but the mother church Helper who shall save him from his own stands where it was planted, and there, undoing, has a truer and more Christian no doubt, it will stand to the end of time. faith than
who believes, or thinks he The day is not far distant when the Cabelieves, in the total depravity of the thedral of St. John the Divine, which in human race and in salvation by grace, some sense is the child of Trinity, and but never experiences humility in the one Columbia University, which used to stand belief or hope in the other. On the one almost in her shadow and with which she hand, earnest skepticism has in it more divided her patrimony, will crown the faith than indifferent belief; on the other, Morningside Heights, seven or eight miles the moral evil of agnosticism lies not so distant from Wall Street; but Trinity much in the doctrine that God and the keeps her vigil on the spot first consecrated future are unknown and unknowable, as to her use in the service of Almighty God. in the spirit which is satisfied to leave No stranger who sees lower New York
for the first time fails to enter the noble The most skeptical man can have the structure whose spire has been dwarfed "will to believe.” He can wish there by gigantic business buildings, but whose were a God of supreme authority, whom uses and symbolism still assert an authorhe might obey with upfaltering loyalty; ity and supremacy not to be gainsaid or