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heart to write disparagingly of his hosts, more friendships between individuals and
it is better that what he writes should not more understanding one of the other. It
be published. And if a learned and emi- ought to be laid to heart by every visitor
nent person should be most warmly re to the States that he is traveling among
ceived in congenial circles, and should so a bright, emotional, kind-hearted, sensi-
disregard the usages of society that he tive people; and it might be useful for his
was declared to have carried himself clever hosts to remember that their guest
“ like a Saxon swineherd before the Nor- belongs to the same stock, where it is
man Conquest,” and to have secured for quite honest and grateful, but proud and
himself the undisputed possession of one shy, and where it has no nerves.
house, his host and hostess having finally What lends a peculiar character to
despaired and fled, then it might have American manners is their genuine and
been better for that distinguished man attractive simplicity; and a traveler does
and for his native land if he had remained feel that his ideal of democratic citizen-
at home. It is right, however, to add ship has been in one particular, at least,
that such primeval manners were original realized. In one way it strikes a foreigner
rather than national, and did not endear that the States lose by not having a
him to every heart even in England. leisured ruling class, with traditions of

One must sadly admit the fact that Eng- public service, of incorruptible honor, of lishmen are not greatly admired or ardently trained statesmanship. In another way loved by the American nation, but the the States gain by counting all their citireason is not always realized. It is not zens eligible for public duty, because the the amazing folly of our Government in the rulers are not a caste, do not give themWar of Independence, nor the unfortunate selves airs, are affable and accessible. conflict of 1812, nor even the avowed The indefinable atmosphere which sursympathy of English society with the rounds one of our civil officials, and which South in the Civil War, although all those he never throws off, which he breathes mistakes have left a heritage of bitterness with evident relish, but which is rather What irritates Americans quite as much rare for ordinary lungs, cannot gather in as any of our family quarrels, so it seems the perpetual motion of American life. to one visitor, is the attitude of the indi- A citizen is summoned from his bank or vidual Englishman. He is supposed office or manufactory or from the editor's with some measure of truth, certainly, chair to a seat, say, in the Cabinet, not to be unsympathetic and critical, or fear- because he belongs to a certain family or fully condescending and patronizing-in even because he has much personal infact, to sniff his way through the States. Auence, but because he is the best man Very likely the poor man is simply dazed for the post. He is not changed by the by the noise and whirl of life in that elec- sudden elevation, and is exactly the same trical atmosphere, or is laying himself out man in Washington as he was a month to please. "It did not, of course, show ago in Boston or Chicago. When his much tact to advise an American woman term of office is over, he withdraws to the who was meditating a visit to Scotland to ranks again, and has not in his talk the read Sir Walter Scott--whom a good note of a bureaucrat. No man with American knows from “Waverley' to common sense tries to stand apart in the "Court Robert of Paris "_but it was not States, or hedge himself round with cerereally meant for an insult; and when an mony. One can speak with a Cabinet Englishwoman congratulated an American Minister or a millionaire, or a Railway on speaking without a twang, she intended President-one of the most powerful functo pay a compliment, and it was unneces

tionaries in the land-or even an editor, sarily cruel to congratulate her in return on without difficulty, and with no necessity not dropping her H's. Our hand (and our for obsequious observances. Policemen humor) is heavy, and a people ought not and car-conductors wear uniform, and the to be judged by insular gaucherie ; it may Judges of the Supreme Court wear a conceal a true heart. What is sorely black gown. No other man wears any offineeded is more going to and fro between cial dress outside the army, and except at the countries English going West, as

West Poir t the army is invisible. There is well as Americans coming East—and no sentinel at the White House, no police

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man, no gay-colored lackeys, and it is a in the newspapers, is likely to become pleasant surprise to find perhaps the most common and vulgar. A visitor can deautocratic ruler in the world except the tect a wistful desire for shelter and quietCzar living as a private gentleman. Per ness among thoughtful Americans, even haps there may be too little privacy in a pardonable ambition for color and stateAmerican life, and it might be some time liness. As years go by, it is not unlikely before an Englishman could make up his that public functions may be marked with mind to live so much in the open, where a certain regulated pomp, and high officials one cannot refuse himself to any person use a just authority; but the chief dignity and the very gardens have no walls. of Democracy must always be its severe There is surely some slight danger that and august simplicity—the strength which life so unshielded, so entirely exposed, comes from the mind and conscience of an where any detail may appear next day intelligent and free-born nation.


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Trinity Church and Its Two Hundred Years

By Florence E. Winslow
THE oldest parish of the Protestant Under the English rule, strange as it

Episcopal Church in New York may seem, the people of the Reformed

is this week celebrating the two Church, in common with all dissenters, hundredth anniversary of its existence. enjoyed more freedom than had been Not only in the beautiful church at the allowed them under their own Dutch head of Wall Street, designed by the Government, which permitted the exer-, architect Upjohn in 1846, but in each of cise of no religion save that of Holland, the eight chapels which band the west and did not allow its people to hold meetside of the city from the Battery to Har- ings in their own houses, a practice to lem, and in St. Augustine's, which does which custom in Holland had endeared its work in the congested district of the them. East Side, the people are thanking God The Dutch and English continued to for the blessing which has enabled the hold services in the Fort Chapel until, in parish to fulfill during two centuries of 1693, the Dutch entered their new chapel service its high trust to the city and State on Exchange Place, now Garden Street. of New York, and which makes it to-day This early example of Christian unity the agent of a wise, vigorous, and far- and liberality is emphasized by the knowlreaching charity. Among the invited edge that the English King and Goverguests who thronged the aisles of Trinity nor Dougan, who allowed such privileges at the historical celebration on Wednes- to the Dutch, gave to the Episcopalians day, May 5, were the representatives of the opportunities of an estabiished church, the old Dutch Church in this city, and and to the city its Charter of Liberties, their presence marked the pleasant rela were both Roman Catholics. tions which have for more than two hun · When, in 1696, the movement to build dred years existed between these two an English church began, the aggregate oldest churches in the city. In the value of the estates in the Province was chapel in the old Fort at Bowling Green $750,000, and the value of the property the sturdy Dutch burghers of New York in the city about one-half of this amount. were worshiping when, in 1664, the feet The town had some 2,000 inhabitants of the Duke of York, Lord High Admiral and nearly 600 houses. The canal on of Great Britain, appeared in the harbor Broad Street had been filled up, and the and seized the fleet and town, driving old merchants no longer met in “exchange' Petrus Stuyvesant to end his days on his on its old bridge. The city, too, had cut pleasant Bouwerie farm. The service of up the clover pasture and laid out Pine the Church of England was at once in- and Cedar Streets, and the darker hightroduced, and, with the warmest brotherly ways were lighted by lanterns hung from feeling, the Dutch and English congrega- every seventh house. The moral hightions used the Fort Chapel in common. ways, however, were intersected by very


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dark byways. The Indian slaves had out of deference to the Governor; but the been but just set free, and a large trade in next year, a new association to promote the importation of negroes from Guinea the interests of the Church of England Aourished. Among these negroes some of having been formed, and several of its the best early work of the catechists of members chosen on the vestry, a full Trinity Church was done. Before the majority chose the Rev. Mr. Vesey as City Hall stood the cage, pillory, and

The conclusion of this matter left whipping-post, their frequent use showing Trinity an Established Church-a fact that, although treated with great severity, which was to its advantage in the early offenses were common. While Trinity days, but which rendered it unpopular was building, “the street that runs by the and retarded its growth after the Revolupie-woman's leading to the City Common” tion. was laid out. This was Nassau Street. When Mr. Vesey returned from Eng

Under the financial circumstances of land, the charter for Trinity had been sethe colonists, it was found difficult to raise cured, and Compton, Bishop of London, the money necessary to build Trinity was nominal rector of the parish. The Church, and many odd and self-sacrificing new rector was “inducted,” Trinity not gifts were received toward the cost of its being finished, by the Governor in the erection ; but by 1697 it was finished-a new Dutch Church, two of the Holland small square church—and the first ser- clergy serving as witnesses. For fifty vices were performed in it on February 6. vears Mr. Vesey served the parish, hav

Meantime, the Rev. William Vesey, a ing as assistants catechists and ministers man born in Braintree, Mass., and gradu- appointed by the Society for the Propagaated from Harvard, who had served as tion of the Gospel, which paid half their lay reader in New England, Long Island, salaries. and New York, had been elected rector, In 1737 the church was enlarged. It and had visited England, where he was stood, where it stands now, very pleasordained by the Bishop of London. antly upon the banks of Hudson's River,

It is a curious fact that Mr. Vesey was before it a long walk railed off from the elected under the provisions of the Broadway, the pleasantest street of any in “Ministry Act” passed by the Assembly the whole town.” It was 148 feet long, inof New York in accordance with the wise cluding tower and chancel ; 72 in breadth, and liberal permissions of the “Duke's and with a steeple 175 feet high. Within, Law." This Act to “establish a Min- it was “ ornamented beyond any other istry" required the formation of a vestry place of public worship among us;" "the of ten men, elected by the freeholders of head of the chancel adorned with an altarNew York, the vestry to elect annually piece and opposite to it an organ, the from its own members two wardens. The iops of the pillars decked with the gilt first electors of the vestry formed under busts of angels, from the ceiling two glass this law held that it was competent to branches, and on the walls the arms of choose as rector of New York a dissent- its principal benefactors." The first of ing minister. A minority differed from these benefactors was Governor Fletcher, this conclusion, and the Governor, Fletch- for whose use a gallery was built on the er, holding with them that the law referred south side of the church. to a ministry of the Church of England, The Governor presented a Bible and and further maintaining that Magna other books, the Earl of Bellamont a parCharta provided "for the religion of the cel of books of divinity, Viscount ComChurch of England in all her dominions,” bury a black pall, on conchition that “no a new vestry meeting was called, and al- person dying and belonging to Forte though a majority still held in favor of the Anne, should be deny'd the use thereof," privilege of a dissenting rector, and the and “ Ye Lord Bishop of Bristol ordered Presbyterians of New York then and and sent over in ye Pink Blossome, pavlater sought to go behind the principles ing stones to be lodged in the steeple.” of Magna Charta, the vestry elected the Two surplices and two Common Prayer Rev. William Vesey.

Books were bought. Nothing further was done, because this In 1705 came a gift that seemed of decision had so evidently been forced small value at the time. It was that of a

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tract of land called in the course of years regained something of the prestige lost by
the Queen's Farm, the King's Farm, or her identification with the English cause
the Church Farm. It lay on the west by calling from his retreat at West Camp
side of Manabatta Island, and extended Mr. Provoost, the patriot preacher, who
from St. Paul's Chapel northward for had left Trinity on account of his sym-
some distance. It was rented to George pathy with the Colonial cause. A native
Ryerse for the sum of thirty-five pounds of New York, and one of the early grad-
per annum, he agreeing “ to sew no Indian uates of King's (Columbia) College, he
corne, to plant no more summer grain came back to New York as rector of
than winter grain, and to leave sufficient Trinity a true American. He was soon
fence.” This King's Farm became in chosen the first Bishop of New York, and
due time the most valuable of city prop- received consecration in London from
erty. It formed the basis of the great the Archbishop of Canterbury in 1787.
inheritance of Trinity, whose vestry have Trinity Church was rebuilt in 1788, and
used the assets to establish or aid churches, before his death he laid the corner-stone of
societies, and benevolent enterprises. St. Mark's Church, which received large
They did not retain all the land, but as it gifts, both in land and money, from Trinity.
became of value gave large grants to The Rev. Benjamin Moore succeeded
other churches and societies, to Presby. Dr. Provoost both as rector and as bishop.
terian churches, to St. George's, St. In 1803 St. John's Chapel was built, at
Mark's, Grace, King's College, etc., until an expense of $172,833. It stood where
about two-thirds of the estate had been it stands now, on Hudson Street, in a
given away. The income was used to country full of ponds and marshes," where
establish the system of chapels wherein was skating in winter and hunting in
the work of the church is continued summer," and where as late as 1808 there
throughout the city.

was at night, owing to the many ponds,
St. George's was the first Chapel of “ sad disaster and often loss of life.” At
Ease built by Trinity. It was finished in this period an offer made to a Lutheran
1752, and stood in Beekman Street. On church of six acres of land near to Canal
the death of Mr. Vesey the vestry had Street and Broadway was refused as “not
chosen a second rector, the Rev. Henry worth the fencing." St. John's was con-
Barclay, a successful missionary among secrated by Bishop Moore in 1807.
the Mohawk Indians at Albany. In 1764, When Moore died, in 1816, the then
a few months after the laying of the cor- Bishop of New York, John Henry Hobart,
ner-stone of St. Paul's Chapel, Dr. Barclay was chosen Rector of Trinity. He was a
died, and was succeeded by the Rev. Mr. man of great power and insight, heroic
Auchmuty. St. Paul's Chapel, finished in his work and in his self-sacrifice. He
in 1766, has been the scene of many inter- brought the Episcopal Church into touch
esting historical services. In it the ser with modern life, eliminated the habits of
vices connected with Washington's inau- thought which still united it to the Colo-
guration were held; it was drapedin mourn- nial period, and laid in New York the
ing for his death; the first conventions of foundations which have enabled the Epis-
the Diocese of New York were held in it, copal Church which we know to-day to do
as well as several bearing on the organ- its vast work. When cautioned against
ization of the General Convention. Soci- overwork, he replied, “How can I do too
eties were organized there, and in our much for Him who has done everything
own day the services of the Centennial for me?" and set out on the visitation
of Washington's Inauguration were held from which he never returned. In 1830
in the venerable building.

the Rev. Dr. Berrian was chosen Rector of
Dr. Auchmuty and Dr. Inglis, the fourth Trinity. During the thirty-five years of
rector, with the parish itself, fell into his service the second Trinity was pro-
troubled waters during the Revolution. nounced unworthy of repairs. It was re-
Both took the King's side. Trinity Church placed by the present Trinity, which was
was burnt, the Americans were finally vic- completed in 1847. Trinity Chapel, con-
torious, and the estates of Dr. Inglis were secrated in 1855, was also built in this
confiscated, and he left New York, becom- rectorate.
ing later Bishop of Nova Scotia. Trinity With the induction, according to the

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ancient ceremony, of the Rev. Morgan All the great societies of the Episcopal Dix, in 1862, a new era dawned on Trin- Church in this city receive yearly grants; ity. St. Augustine’s Chapel, which minis- All Saints' receives about $6,000 a year; ters by every known modern method to and the list of churches within and without the poor of the East Side, has been built, the city which receive annual stipends is in 1877. St. Chrysostom's, another free quite too long to give. No wonder that chapel, has been completed. St. Agnes's the large income of the parish is barely was consecrated by Bishop Potter in 1892. sufficient for its needs. In addition to these chapels Trinity has

So well is the work of Trinity among assumed the support of old St. Luke's, the poor below Canal Street in New York and of the Chapel of St. Cornelius on done that other charitable institutions Governor's Island. The parish supports have withdrawn. The Trinity Associasix parish day schools, all free, employ- tion, with a separate income raised by ing twenty-six teachers for one thou- special effort, works largely here. Memsand scholars. It was a pioneer in the bers of the vestry have visited Europe to matter of industrial training, and has study foreign habits in order to meet the large manual-training as well as Sunday needs of foreign peoples, especially the schools.

German, It supports Trinity Hospital in Varick When it is remembered that both St. Street at an expense of $8,000 per annum, George's and Grace Church, who are and maintains five beds in St. Luke's, doing similar work, owe their prosperity costing $2,000. Its grants to Hobart Col to the fostering care of Trinity, it will be lege amount to $40,000 or $50,000. It seen that Trinity is the mother of much holds five scholarships in Trinity College, of the “social Christianity” which diseleven in Trinity School; supports one of tinguishes the Episcopal Church in New the missionaries of St. Barnabas; keeps York. In the absence during two hunup its property; supports eighteen clergy- dred years of a cathedral, it has been the men and seven organists; pays a comp center of ecclesiastical life, and has well troller, clerk, counsel, eight bookkeepers, filled to the Episcopal Church in New and annual taxes amounting to $63,000. York the position of Mother Church.

Arbitration and Conciliation Practically Applied

By H. Oscar Cole
Ex-President Bricklayers' and Masons' Independent Union


THERE cannot be any doubt in the tion, and if one suffers so must perforce mind of any well-thinking person the other. If one be injured, injury to

that arbitration as a means of the other must of necessity speedily folsettling disputes between employers and low; therefore they must of necessity employed is coming to be universally come to look upon each other as friends recognized as the only rational prevent- and not enemies, for it is as certain as ive of or cure for strikes, lockouts, and fate that neither can exist without the other antagonisms that from time to time other. This being the case, the natural spring up between the employer and em- question arises as to the best means ployed. In many cases these conflicts of bringing about a stronger bond of lead to exhaustive and ruinous efforts friendship between these two essential on both sides, the strongest trying their bodies. best to coerce and conquer the weakest. After an experience of over twelve

That there always will be more or less years, I am of the opinion that voluntary conflict between capital and labor goes arbitration and conciliation is the surest without saying. This, in the main, is due method of ending the constantly recurto the fact that they do not properly un

ring troubles between the employer and derstand each other. Labor and capital the employed, the adoption of which I are among the greatest forces of civiliza- firmly believe will bring about an era of

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