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heart to write disparagingly of his hosts, more friendships between individuals and
One must sadly admit the fact that Eng- public service, of incorruptible honor, of lishmen are not greatly admired or ardently trained statesmanship. In another way loved by the American nation, but the the States gain by counting all their citireason is not always realized. It is not zens eligible for public duty, because the the amazing folly of our Government in the rulers are not a caste, do not give themWar of Independence, nor the unfortunate selves airs, are affable and accessible. conflict of 1812, nor even the avowed The indefinable atmosphere which sursympathy of English society with the rounds one of our civil officials, and which South in the Civil War, although all those he never throws off, which he breathes mistakes have left a heritage of bitterness with evident relish, but which is rather What irritates Americans quite as much rare for ordinary lungs, cannot gather in as any of our family quarrels, so it seems the perpetual motion of American life. to one visitor, is the attitude of the indi- A citizen is summoned from his bank or vidual Englishman. He is supposed office or manufactory or from the editor's with some measure of truth, certainly, chair to a seat, say, in the Cabinet, not to be unsympathetic and critical, or fear- because he belongs to a certain family or fully condescending and patronizing-in even because he has much personal infact, to sniff his way through the States. Auence, but because he is the best man Very likely the poor man is simply dazed for the post. He is not changed by the by the noise and whirl of life in that elec- sudden elevation, and is exactly the same trical atmosphere, or is laying himself out man in Washington as he was a month to please. "It did not, of course, show ago in Boston or Chicago. When his much tact to advise an American woman term of office is over, he withdraws to the who was meditating a visit to Scotland to ranks again, and has not in his talk the read Sir Walter Scott--whom a good note of a bureaucrat. No man with American knows from “Waverley' to common sense tries to stand apart in the "Court Robert of Paris "_but it was not States, or hedge himself round with cerereally meant for an insult; and when an mony. One can speak with a Cabinet Englishwoman congratulated an American Minister or a millionaire, or a Railway on speaking without a twang, she intended President-one of the most powerful functo pay a compliment, and it was unneces
tionaries in the land-or even an editor, sarily cruel to congratulate her in return on without difficulty, and with no necessity not dropping her H's. Our hand (and our for obsequious observances. Policemen humor) is heavy, and a people ought not and car-conductors wear uniform, and the to be judged by insular gaucherie ; it may Judges of the Supreme Court wear a conceal a true heart. What is sorely black gown. No other man wears any offineeded is more going to and fro between cial dress outside the army, and except at the countries English going West, as
West Poir t the army is invisible. There is well as Americans coming East—and no sentinel at the White House, no police
man, no gay-colored lackeys, and it is a in the newspapers, is likely to become pleasant surprise to find perhaps the most common and vulgar. A visitor can deautocratic ruler in the world except the tect a wistful desire for shelter and quietCzar living as a private gentleman. Per ness among thoughtful Americans, even haps there may be too little privacy in a pardonable ambition for color and stateAmerican life, and it might be some time liness. As years go by, it is not unlikely before an Englishman could make up his that public functions may be marked with mind to live so much in the open, where a certain regulated pomp, and high officials one cannot refuse himself to any person use a just authority; but the chief dignity and the very gardens have no walls. of Democracy must always be its severe There is surely some slight danger that and august simplicity—the strength which life so unshielded, so entirely exposed, comes from the mind and conscience of an where any detail may appear next day intelligent and free-born nation.
Trinity Church and Its Two Hundred Years
By Florence E. Winslow
Episcopal Church in New York may seem, the people of the Reformed
is this week celebrating the two Church, in common with all dissenters, hundredth anniversary of its existence. enjoyed more freedom than had been Not only in the beautiful church at the allowed them under their own Dutch head of Wall Street, designed by the Government, which permitted the exer-, architect Upjohn in 1846, but in each of cise of no religion save that of Holland, the eight chapels which band the west and did not allow its people to hold meetside of the city from the Battery to Har- ings in their own houses, a practice to lem, and in St. Augustine's, which does which custom in Holland had endeared its work in the congested district of the them. East Side, the people are thanking God The Dutch and English continued to for the blessing which has enabled the hold services in the Fort Chapel until, in parish to fulfill during two centuries of 1693, the Dutch entered their new chapel service its high trust to the city and State on Exchange Place, now Garden Street. of New York, and which makes it to-day This early example of Christian unity the agent of a wise, vigorous, and far- and liberality is emphasized by the knowlreaching charity. Among the invited edge that the English King and Goverguests who thronged the aisles of Trinity nor Dougan, who allowed such privileges at the historical celebration on Wednes- to the Dutch, gave to the Episcopalians day, May 5, were the representatives of the opportunities of an estabiished church, the old Dutch Church in this city, and and to the city its Charter of Liberties, their presence marked the pleasant rela were both Roman Catholics. tions which have for more than two hun · When, in 1696, the movement to build dred years existed between these two an English church began, the aggregate oldest churches in the city. In the value of the estates in the Province was chapel in the old Fort at Bowling Green $750,000, and the value of the property the sturdy Dutch burghers of New York in the city about one-half of this amount. were worshiping when, in 1664, the feet The town had some 2,000 inhabitants of the Duke of York, Lord High Admiral and nearly 600 houses. The canal on of Great Britain, appeared in the harbor Broad Street had been filled up, and the and seized the fleet and town, driving old merchants no longer met in “exchange' Petrus Stuyvesant to end his days on his on its old bridge. The city, too, had cut pleasant Bouwerie farm. The service of up the clover pasture and laid out Pine the Church of England was at once in- and Cedar Streets, and the darker hightroduced, and, with the warmest brotherly ways were lighted by lanterns hung from feeling, the Dutch and English congrega- every seventh house. The moral hightions used the Fort Chapel in common. ways, however, were intersected by very
dark byways. The Indian slaves had out of deference to the Governor; but the been but just set free, and a large trade in next year, a new association to promote the importation of negroes from Guinea the interests of the Church of England Aourished. Among these negroes some of having been formed, and several of its the best early work of the catechists of members chosen on the vestry, a full Trinity Church was done. Before the majority chose the Rev. Mr. Vesey as City Hall stood the cage, pillory, and
The conclusion of this matter left whipping-post, their frequent use showing Trinity an Established Church-a fact that, although treated with great severity, which was to its advantage in the early offenses were common. While Trinity days, but which rendered it unpopular was building, “the street that runs by the and retarded its growth after the Revolupie-woman's leading to the City Common” tion. was laid out. This was Nassau Street. When Mr. Vesey returned from Eng
Under the financial circumstances of land, the charter for Trinity had been sethe colonists, it was found difficult to raise cured, and Compton, Bishop of London, the money necessary to build Trinity was nominal rector of the parish. The Church, and many odd and self-sacrificing new rector was “inducted,” Trinity not gifts were received toward the cost of its being finished, by the Governor in the erection ; but by 1697 it was finished-a new Dutch Church, two of the Holland small square church—and the first ser- clergy serving as witnesses. For fifty vices were performed in it on February 6. vears Mr. Vesey served the parish, hav
Meantime, the Rev. William Vesey, a ing as assistants catechists and ministers man born in Braintree, Mass., and gradu- appointed by the Society for the Propagaated from Harvard, who had served as tion of the Gospel, which paid half their lay reader in New England, Long Island, salaries. and New York, had been elected rector, In 1737 the church was enlarged. It and had visited England, where he was stood, where it stands now, very pleasordained by the Bishop of London. antly upon the banks of Hudson's River,
It is a curious fact that Mr. Vesey was before it a long walk railed off from the elected under the provisions of the Broadway, the pleasantest street of any in “Ministry Act” passed by the Assembly the whole town.” It was 148 feet long, inof New York in accordance with the wise cluding tower and chancel ; 72 in breadth, and liberal permissions of the “Duke's and with a steeple 175 feet high. Within, Law." This Act to “establish a Min- it was “ ornamented beyond any other istry" required the formation of a vestry place of public worship among us;" "the of ten men, elected by the freeholders of head of the chancel adorned with an altarNew York, the vestry to elect annually piece and opposite to it an organ, the from its own members two wardens. The iops of the pillars decked with the gilt first electors of the vestry formed under busts of angels, from the ceiling two glass this law held that it was competent to branches, and on the walls the arms of choose as rector of New York a dissent- its principal benefactors." The first of ing minister. A minority differed from these benefactors was Governor Fletcher, this conclusion, and the Governor, Fletch- for whose use a gallery was built on the er, holding with them that the law referred south side of the church. to a ministry of the Church of England, The Governor presented a Bible and and further maintaining that Magna other books, the Earl of Bellamont a parCharta provided "for the religion of the cel of books of divinity, Viscount ComChurch of England in all her dominions,” bury a black pall, on conchition that “no a new vestry meeting was called, and al- person dying and belonging to Forte though a majority still held in favor of the Anne, should be deny'd the use thereof," privilege of a dissenting rector, and the and “ Ye Lord Bishop of Bristol ordered Presbyterians of New York then and and sent over in ye Pink Blossome, pavlater sought to go behind the principles ing stones to be lodged in the steeple.” of Magna Charta, the vestry elected the Two surplices and two Common Prayer Rev. William Vesey.
Books were bought. Nothing further was done, because this In 1705 came a gift that seemed of decision had so evidently been forced small value at the time. It was that of a
tract of land called in the course of years regained something of the prestige lost by
was at night, owing to the many ponds,
the Rev. Dr. Berrian was chosen Rector of
ancient ceremony, of the Rev. Morgan All the great societies of the Episcopal Dix, in 1862, a new era dawned on Trin- Church in this city receive yearly grants; ity. St. Augustine’s Chapel, which minis- All Saints' receives about $6,000 a year; ters by every known modern method to and the list of churches within and without the poor of the East Side, has been built, the city which receive annual stipends is in 1877. St. Chrysostom's, another free quite too long to give. No wonder that chapel, has been completed. St. Agnes's the large income of the parish is barely was consecrated by Bishop Potter in 1892. sufficient for its needs. In addition to these chapels Trinity has
So well is the work of Trinity among assumed the support of old St. Luke's, the poor below Canal Street in New York and of the Chapel of St. Cornelius on done that other charitable institutions Governor's Island. The parish supports have withdrawn. The Trinity Associasix parish day schools, all free, employ- tion, with a separate income raised by ing twenty-six teachers for one thou- special effort, works largely here. Memsand scholars. It was a pioneer in the bers of the vestry have visited Europe to matter of industrial training, and has study foreign habits in order to meet the large manual-training as well as Sunday needs of foreign peoples, especially the schools.
German, It supports Trinity Hospital in Varick When it is remembered that both St. Street at an expense of $8,000 per annum, George's and Grace Church, who are and maintains five beds in St. Luke's, doing similar work, owe their prosperity costing $2,000. Its grants to Hobart Col to the fostering care of Trinity, it will be lege amount to $40,000 or $50,000. It seen that Trinity is the mother of much holds five scholarships in Trinity College, of the “social Christianity” which diseleven in Trinity School; supports one of tinguishes the Episcopal Church in New the missionaries of St. Barnabas; keeps York. In the absence during two hunup its property; supports eighteen clergy- dred years of a cathedral, it has been the men and seven organists; pays a comp center of ecclesiastical life, and has well troller, clerk, counsel, eight bookkeepers, filled to the Episcopal Church in New and annual taxes amounting to $63,000. York the position of Mother Church.
Arbitration and Conciliation Practically Applied
By H. Oscar Cole
THERE cannot be any doubt in the tion, and if one suffers so must perforce mind of any well-thinking person the other. If one be injured, injury to
that arbitration as a means of the other must of necessity speedily folsettling disputes between employers and low; therefore they must of necessity employed is coming to be universally come to look upon each other as friends recognized as the only rational prevent- and not enemies, for it is as certain as ive of or cure for strikes, lockouts, and fate that neither can exist without the other antagonisms that from time to time other. This being the case, the natural spring up between the employer and em- question arises as to the best means ployed. In many cases these conflicts of bringing about a stronger bond of lead to exhaustive and ruinous efforts friendship between these two essential on both sides, the strongest trying their bodies. best to coerce and conquer the weakest. After an experience of over twelve
That there always will be more or less years, I am of the opinion that voluntary conflict between capital and labor goes arbitration and conciliation is the surest without saying. This, in the main, is due method of ending the constantly recurto the fact that they do not properly un
ring troubles between the employer and derstand each other. Labor and capital the employed, the adoption of which I are among the greatest forces of civiliza- firmly believe will bring about an era of