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Republicans were in favor of the Treaty, the country might have been satisfied; with and the Democrats were nearly evenly its defeat the country will not be satisfied. divided ; the gold men were in favor, and The lovers of peace must begin a new a majority of the silver men were opposed; agitation, not for international arbitration, the Eastern States were in favor, and the but for the establishment of a permanent Southern and Western States were divided. court of judicature, to which all interThe following analysis of the vote, which national questions of every description takes account of pairs also, indicates this must be submitted as a matter of course, division more accurately, but in this esti- exactly as all controversies between the mate no account is made of absentees States of the Union are submitted to the who were not paired, or whose position in Supreme Court of the United States. pairing is unknown:

The next proposition should be, not for a 33 R., 16 D., and 1 Populist.

tentative tribunal for the adjustment of Against: 7 R., 14 D., and 9 Silver R. and P. difficulties between Great Britain and the For: 36 Gold, 14 Silver.

United States, but for a permanent triAgainst : 5 25

bunal for the adjustment of all controverFor: 29 East of Missouri, 14 S., 7 W. sies between the United States and any Against: 3

11 S., 16 W. civilized nation which will join us in this The causes which seem to us to have endeavor to substitute law for war—that operated in bringing about the rejection is, reason for brute force. of this Treaty were chiefly four: (1) Personal antagonism to President Cleveland and Secretary Olney created a prejudice April financial and business reports against the Treaty, and Senators once are of interest. That of the United committed against it were not sufficiently States Treasury shows receipts to bave large-minded to change their position. (2) increased over a million and a half as The Treaty would have had the effect to compared with March, and over thirreduce the prerogatives of the Senate, by teen millions and a half as compared transferring from the Executive Depart- with April, 1896. The increase is, of ment, of which in the ratification of the course, due to the revenue from customs. treaties the Senate is a part, to the Judi- Present imports at the port of New York cial Department the adjustment of inter are on a great scale, those for the past national difficulties. Like all aristocratic fortnight being over $33,000,000. Treasbodies, the Senate is exceedingly jealous ury expenditures for April were five millof anything which threatens a diminution ion dollars ahead of those for March, and of its powers. (3) The hostility to Eng- three millions abead of those for Apri), land, which we regret to believe is wide- 1896. The Treasury deficit has thus been spread, though we hope not deeply seated, greatly reduced. For the ten months of and which has been recently intensified the fiscal year receipts have been nearly by the extraordinary inaction of Great six million dollars more than during the Britain in the presence of the Armenian corresponding period a year ago; expendmassacres and its still more extraordinary itures have been over fifteen millions more. action in respect to Crete and Greece, An equally interesting April statement operated strongly against the Treaty. (4) is that of business failures, as we find it The general spirit of conservatism, which in “Dun's Review.” The number of failleads a great many men to think nothing ures during the month was 941, as against can be which has not been, and to oppose 1,000 in April 1896,999 in April 1895, and the principle of international judicial sys- 1,050 in April 1894. In seeming contrast tem simply because it is a novelty in inter- with this, liabilities of the concerns that national relations, made some Senators have failed are reported at $17,600,000 regard the Treaty as impracticable.

for last month, as against $12,400,000 for the corresponding month a year ago. The

value of tracing failures to particular lines We are inclined to think that the defeat of business is well illustrated here ; fail. of the Treaty, as emasculated, will in the ures of five New Bedford mills for neariy end prove more advantageous than its $8,000,000 amount to more than the adoption. With an emasculated Treaty whole increase, and do not reflect any

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proportional weakness in the trade itself. however, to say to our readers that these “Dun's Review” also publishes a report three heresies are all “ orthodox” in the of actual sales in April by leading houses Episcopal Church. Neither one of them in every line of business in the principal is inconsistent with either the Apostles' cities east of the Rocky Mountains. These or the Nicene Creeds, which say nothsales average six per cent. more than in ing respecting the fall of man, the method the same month last year, and about one of Christ's redemption, or the limits of tenth less than in April, 1892, the year divine grace in the future. Cheyne and of largest business hitherto. Perhaps Driver both deny, on grounds of Biblical the most notable feature of the commer- criticism, the historical authority of the cial world during April was the speculation first chapters of Genesis, which constiin wheat—a result of the Græco-Turkish tute, of course, the foundation for the

Dealings in grain futures of all ecclesiastical doctrine of the fall. Dean kinds were nearly two and one-half times as Stanley repudiates the idea that Christ's great as in April last year. An industry death is an “expiatory sacrifice for sin." presenting unsatisfactory conditions at Dean Farrar maintains the doctrine of present is that of railways, and the reduc “the larger hope.” The Episcopal Church tion by the Chicago and Alton Company is bound to the facts, not to a philosof its dividend rate is an impressive illus- ophy of the facts. If the other Prottration. The Alton's dividend record at estant clergy of New Orleans regard eight per cent. has been maintained for the fall of man, the sacrificial atonement, sixteen years.

and everlasting punishment as essential
articles of the Christian faith, they do

quite right to preach and teach them; but The action of the “ Occident” in en

to assume that he repudiates Christianity deavoring to impose its own understand

who finds no authority either in the ing of Presbyterian standards upon the Bible or the ecumenical creeds of ChrisChristian Endeavor Convention, and to

tendom for these theological formulaexclude from office in that body a Con- ries, and to attempt to coerce the Episgregational minister in good and regular copal Church in Louisiana into putting an standing in his own denomination because Episcopal Bishop on trial for holding what he could not be admitted to a Presbytery— is held without reproach by Episcopal dig. action on which we have commented in nitaries in England, is an extraordinary another column--is surpassed by that of

course of procedure. For ourselves, we the non-Episcopal divines of New Orleans, have no doubt that these doctrines, whether who are endeavoring to excommunicate

true or false, are not essential elements in from the Christian Church an Episcopalian Christian faith, and that the attempt to Bishop, because he does not agree with make them so is analogous to the attempt their theological views. Among the here which Christ condemned in his own time, sies of which the Presbyterian, Method

to overlay the simple truth of the Gospel ist, Baptist, and Lutheran clergy accuse

with the traditions of the schools. All Bishop Sessums are:

that is essential to Christian faith on these

three points is summed up in the declaraThe explicit denial of the fall of man from a

“I believe in Jesus Christ his only state of primitive holiness, with the derivation of a corrupt nature consequent thereupon.

Son our Lord, . . . who suffered under The express denial that Christ hath “redeemed Pontius Pilate, was crucified, dead, and us by his blood," being not a sacrificial offering buried. I believe in the forgiveness for sin, but consisting merely in the influence of of sins and the life everlasting." a good example reclaiming man of his ways.

The assertion of the final restoration of all men to the favor of God in a state of probation

Bishop Potter lately made before the after death.

New York “Church Association for the We have not Bishop Sessums's sermon Advancement of the Interests of Labor" before us, and in response to telegraphic an address which has created, as his adrequest for information he disavows re dresses are apt to do, some little stir, and sponsibility for the newspaper report of has been apparently misreported—a mis his discourse. It is hardly necessary, chance very apt to befall addresses which


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have any point to them. He has been, another, struggling to prepare for its coming; and for example, reported to have complained thus the ages roll on and the world goes on; of the introduction of machinery as throw

self-sacrifice, self-effacement always. ing men out of employment. What he This is the kind of teaching which makes really seems to have said was that it was men infidel, and if it truly represented the tendency of machinery and the ac- Christianity ought to make them infidel. companying division of labor to make men No religion can be true which pretends themselves mechanical. We quote from to fit men for another life by making a report in the New York “ Times :" them unfit for this, We desire to add It {machinery] is doing away with intelligence

our emphatic indorsement to the inin labor. It is turning the laboring man into a

dorsement which the Springfield “Resimple idiot. Not long ago I visited a large fac. publican has given to the spirit of tory in this State, and was much impressed with Bishop Potter's address : “Jesus was what I saw. The owner proudly showed me around, pointing out the manner in which labor

with the laborer every time. Let was simplified. I saw a young man sitting before hope that the professed churches of God some sort of a large hammer. He sat with his legs will come up to this Bishop's standard, crossed, and all his work consisted in shoving and speedily, moreover.” The evil which iron. He would turn the metal two or three times, Bishop Potter indicates is real, though throw it into a large box, and take another piece. there are compensating advantages. The That was this man's work, day after day, week remedy is to be found, of course, not in after week. No wonder that at night-time he the abolition of machinery, but in giving drank, gambled, and fought. He had to; other

to the laborer a larger share of the adwise he would go mad. How many of us would stand this and not cry out? Not one of us but vantages which macbinery confers, by would become a striker. Myself among the first. making shorter hours for toil and longer It must be confessed that this is very hours for self-improvement. trenchant in form, and also that it presents only one aspect of the case, but it is an important aspect, and one to which a The death of Admiral Richard W. great many men are singularly blind. Meade, at Washington, ends a naval

career conspicuous for courage and ca

pacity. Admiral Meade was born in this To Bishop Potter two replies have been city in 1837, and was the nephew of made, one by the New York “Times,” General Meade, who was in command of the other by the New York “Sun.” The the Federal forces at Gettysburg; gradfirst affirms that under the reign of ma uated from the Naval Academy in 1855, chinery the son gets twelve dollars a week joined the frigate Merrimac, cruised in for the same hours of labor for which the the West Indies and about northern father received but seven dollars, and that Europe until April two years later, when for the twelve dollars he can buy as much he received his commission as a master, as the father would have had to pay fifteen and was assigned to duty on the African for. Of course this has nothing to do squadron. In 1862, as Lieutenant-Comwith the question, which is not whether mander, he joined the ironclad Louisville, the man can make more money and buy and did admirable work in breaking up more things with the product of his indus- the guerrilla warfare on the Mississippi try, but whether the industry itself makes River. A year later he was in command more or less of a man of him. The reply of the steamer United S:ates, and he had of the New York “Sun” is so extraor- charge of the naval battalion during the dinary that we report it in its own words: July riots in this city. Later in the year

The Gospel of Christ constantly makes poverty he was in command of the steam gunboat and suffering the avenue of approach to the Marblehead, and took part in the defense heavenly gates, and riches a bar to admission

of John's Island, off South Carolina. He through them. What inatters it how men suffer and are denied here so long as they win

was in active service at one point or the reward of the life to come? Nor does it re

another during the entire war, and be quite religious faith to recognize the profound came widely known throughout the navy philosophic truth in this view of life. This life

as “ Fighting Dick Meade.” He was a exists and forever has existed with reference to the life succeeding it. One man sows, another

man of impetuous and impulsive nature. man reapeth. One generation makes way for While in command of the Northern At

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lantic Squadron he was not allowed to Washington. In all parts of the country,
execute a plan of maneuvering in the says Secretary Woodruff, there has been
Caribbean Sea, and his ships, were or "an awakening sentiment in favor of the
dered to New York; whereupon he re- municipal ownership and control of semi-
signed and asked for retirement, and at public monopolies like street railways, gas
the same time expressed himself with and electric light plants, and water-works.”
great freedom with regard to President This extension of municipal activity is
Cleveland's administration. There was the natural supplement of Civil Service
some talk of court-martial proceedings, Reform. The overthrow of the spoils
but the incident terminated with a repri- system not only enables the public to
mand from the President in his order discharge its present functions more effi-
retiring Admiral Meade from active ser ciently, but to assume others which it has
vice, the President expressing his regret been delegating to private corporations
that the service of an officer so brilliant at the cost of arbitrary and unreasonable
and marked by so many honorable inci- charges for the services rende red.
dents had been tarnished at the close by
insubordination. It cannot be said that
to those who knew Admiral Meade's char The forty-third annual report of the
acter this reprimand carried any great Superintendent of the New York State
weight. They felt that it was needed as Department of Public Instruction, just
a matter of discipline, but that the qual- issued, presents many encouraging fea-
ities in the man which called it out were tures, and makes suggestions which should
too intimately allied with his courage and receive careful consideration from all citi-
gallantry to carry with it any stigma. zens of the State. Ninety-four per cent.

of the children of the State of New York

never go beyond the elementary schools The report made by Secretary Wood a fact which demonstrates the imporruff at the meeting of the National Mu tance of improving the conditions and nicipal League in Louisville, Kentucky, raising the standards of education in our last week, was most encouraging. Apart elementary schools. In connection with from the remarkable growth of the dis- this statement Superintendent Skinner cussion of municipal problems in books, lays great emphasis on the necessity of magazines, and newspapers, there has the maintenance of libraries in connection been during the past year a succession of with our public schools; and says that victories for the principles the League from the beginning of a school career was formed to advocate. The most im- every child should have access to a library portant of these victories, not hereto'ore which should supplement his school work, recorded in these columns, was the re As only six out of every one hundred election of a competent Democratic Mayor children have the advantages of what we in Providence, R. I., though the city gave call higher education, the important quesa Republican majority of 10,000 in the tion arises, What is the duty of the State National election. For the great victory of to the ninety-four per cent.?' The Superthe Civic Federation in Denver, Colo., intendent advises an improvement in the Secretary Woodruff gives a large share of method of teaching spelling and compothe credit to woman suffrage. in Chicago sition; he protests against the promotion the election of Mayor Harrison is shown

out of grammar grades of any pupil who to have involved no defeat for the principle cannot intelligently and accurately exof Civil Service Reform. The new Mayor's press his thoughts in writing. As ninetyattitude on that question, says Mr. Wood- four per cent. of the children educated by ruff, has been so satisfactory that the Civic the State must acquire their knowledge Federation of Chicago has adopted resolu- of arithmetic between the ages of eight tions indorsing it. One of the chief gains and fourteen, the Superintendent believes made during the last year has been the ex that at fourteen years of age the child tension of civil service rules to the govern- should have included in his studies comment of several more large cities, includ- mercial and business arithmetic, and he ing New Orleans, Louisiana ; Milwaukee, considers these as essential as a thorough Wisconsin; ard Seattle and Tacoma, drill in English. That courses of study

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are overcrowded and often beyond the average of fifty-two weeks to the year

the ability of the pupil to master, the Super- salaries paid in towns are but $5.87, and intendent acknowledges; but he believes in cities $14.30 per week for fifty-two also that time is wasted between ten and weeks; or $18.59 for a year of forty fourteen years of age by children of active weeks. While the tendency is upward, minds.

the mortifying fact remains that teachers' wages do not compare with those of other

public servants. Of the one hundred and fourteen school commissioners elected last November, sixty were re-elected. Ninety-nine of the The schools in the rural districts ocone hundred and fourteen commissioners cupy a large space in the report, and have been teachers; ten are college grad- the Superintendent strongly advocates uates; twenty are graduates of normal the township system. The first difficulty schools; five hold State certificates, and encountered in the rural schools is the thirty-two have won first-graduate certifi lack of systematic and businesslike cates. The report also brings out the management. These schools cannot be deplorable fact that, because the low brought to a proper standard until their salaries paid to our school commissioners, administration is conducted on forty-seven have to engage in other occu other than the present district school syspations. It is to be hoped that before tem. In 1860 the waste of public moneys the expiration of the term of the present in the support of the rural schools was commissioners legislation will have pro- pointed out by Superintendent Van Dyck. vided higher salaries. Special recognition The Superintendent of Education in 1877 is made of the work of the women com followed the example of bis p:edecessor, missioners of the State. Ninety per cent. and urged the substitution of the town of the graduates of the normal schools system for the present school district sysbecome teachers. Naturally, the law that Superintendent Draper, in 1892, has raised the standards of requirements unbesitatingly declared that it was his befor teachers in our public schools receives lief that if the township system of schools the approval of the Superintendent. This were once in operation it would greatly law, which is acknowledged to be one of promote the efficiency of those schools. the most progressive passed by the Legis Superintendent Crooker in 1893 said, Jature in many years, establishes a min “The leading educators of the State, irreimum preliminary education for every spective of their political views, stand as candidate for a teacher's position, and this a unit for the township system.” Horace embraces practical and theoretical train Maon in 1839 declared that the law of ing in pedagogy. The compulsory school 1789, which authorized the towns in law resulted in the arrest of four hundred Massachusetts to divide themselves into and forty-three persons in the State hold school districts, was the most unfortunate ing parental relations to children who law on the subject of common schools were recognized as habitual truants. But ever enacted in the State. In 1870 there the law is made to some degree inoperative were fifteen hundred district schools in because so many communities have no New York State, with an average daily place where truants can be cared for. attendance of less than ten pupils each. Educators throughout the State are pre- In 1896 there were thirty-five hundred paring to appeal to the Legislature for the such districts. One of the officials of the establishing of one or more State home Department of State Education in his reschools for truants. The increase of port stated that he visited a school where teachers' salaries must give satisfaction the teacher sat embroidering because to all citizens interested in education. In there were no pupils, and an iovestiga1885 the average weekly salary of teachers tion showed that there were no children in cities was $16.86; in towns, $7.84. of school age in that school district. The average weekly salary of the teachers The remedy for this .condition has been in towns has increased to $9.26; but this found, in Massachusetts and several of average deducts the number of weeks of the other States, in the establishment of Vacation from the school year. On an good schools in the center of each dis

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