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trict, and the payment by the State of ling the public schools of New York and transportation of the pupils to and from the Board of Education appointed under the schools.

Mayor Strong is seen in the selection of
Mr. Frank Damrosch as Supervisor of

Music of the public schools. Rarely has Recently in Connecticut a very careful

a Board of Education had equal oppormap was prepared to show the advan- tunity to appoint to a position a man who

age of this system. It is urged by pro had so conclusively proved his fitness for gressive educators that the State be the place. For years Mr. Frank Dam, divided into State school districts equal rosch has conducted the People's Choral to about the area of a county, each school Union of New York, the first thoroughly district to have two high schools, located successful attempt to teach an art to the at points easily accessible by rail and untrained in New York. The classes of otherwise, the elementary and grammar the Union have been crowded, and the grades to be located by the State officers attendance so regular that the director after a careful study of each locality. has been able to give the " Messiah" with This would remove from the community

a chorus of one thousand voices. The the little red school-house with all its

critics agree that the performance left present limitations, sanitary as well as

little to criticise. Mr. Damrosch has educational. The administration of the

proved his ability to do the work to which schools is to be under the control of a

he is called in the city where his future State superintendent and eight county

success lies. The appointments of the superintendents, who are to serve for principals to three of the High Schools eight years, this superintendent and bis have been made. The advocates of the assistants to be recognized experts and appointment of a woman to the Girls' paid salaries commensurate with the ser

High School did not succeed. The prinvices rendered. Eight county councils cipal appointed is Mr. John G. Wright, of are provided for, composed of the County Philadelphia. The agitation in favor of Superintendent, with one member for the appointment of women to the position each town in the county, and an additional of principals of Girls' High Schools will member for each five hundred pupils in continue, and will doubtless be successful school enrollment. Minnesota has within

in the future. the last month arranged for the consolidation of her small school districts, and provision has been made for the erection

During the past week the Greeks have of high-school buildings in the center of been the victims of still further disasters, each township, and for the conveyance have shown the same splendid courage of the children at public expense. Super- which has dignified the struggle from the intendent Skinner, in summing up the start, and are now standing at bay and difficulties of the elementary schools, suing for peace. There were impormakes a statement which applies to every tant battles at Velestino and Pharsalos State in the Union: “When it is remem

last week, the Greeks fighting against bered that the first eight years of school heavy odds with the greatest spirit, but life carry the child through a formative being compelled in the end to retreat period of greater consequence than any

because their line was broken by flank which follows, and that the State, through

movements on the part of the Turks. the public schools, then exercises over

Pharsalos and Volo were promptly occu, all the children a control which it is im- pied by the forces of Edhem Pasha, and mediately thereafter forced by withdrawals the Greek troops retreated to Domoko, to relinquish in the case of ninety-four where they have a mountain range behind per cent of them, the duty of providing them, and will be in an extremely perilthe most favorable conditions for intellectual and moral growth at this early stage sudden advance. The air is full of re

ous position if the Turkish forces make a is apparent.”

ports of proposed intervention on the part

of the Powers and of an application for A most striking evidence of the prog- intervention on the part of Greece, and ress possible under the new law control the situation is so desperate that it is

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probable that Greece is trying to secure notorious incapacity. When the history peace on the best possible terms.

A new of the war is written, it will appear that and perplexing set of questions will arise the Greeks have been betrayed both at when the attempt is made to determine home and abroad; for there is very good the conditions of peace. Turkey will evidence to believe that they were led naturally be eager for an indemnity, and it into the war by false promises of aid, and is reported that the amount to be asked that the weakness of the King, preyed will be about thirty millions of dollars. upon by a court faction, has brought them It is absolutely impossible for the Greeks to disaster in the field. to pay any such sum. One of the worst results of the unfortunate struggle is the access of strength which success brings When the first horror of the disaster in to Turkey. It looks now as if the solu- the Palace of Industry in Paris, by which t'on of the Eastern question were post over a hundred and twenty-five lives were poned indefinitely, as if Turkey had taken lost, has passed, it is natural to ask whether a new lease of life, and as if all the un- such terrible destruction of life might not certainties and miseries of the situation have been prevented by foresight and were to be passed on to another genera

There is no doubt that the buildtion.

ing in which the great fair for charity was to be held was inflammable and poorly

guarded; that exposed lamps were reckAmid all the confusion, moral and lessly allowed in the place, and that there otherwise, of the Eastern situation, the was a lack of police and fire supervision. courage of Greece shines like a star. A wretched story--we hope not true—is Never has a small country faced more published to the effect that the Prefect tremendous odds with a more dauntless of the Paris police attempts to excuse spirit. Greece has practically had not himself for not properly inspecting and only Turkey but all Europe to contend policing the place because the patrons with, and she is the only country involved and patronesses of the bazaar were all Re. in the Eastern situation which has carried actionists, and he feared to meddle lest herself in a way to command the respect he be accused of trying to suppress a of Christendom. Not only has the cour Catholic enterprise. Moreover, he is repage of the men in the field been worthy resented as saying, many of the organizers of their ancestors, but the heroism of the of the affair were Ralliés, whom the Gov. women, the self-denial of families, and ernment wished to oblige. It need hardly the devotion of the whole people, as re

be said that such an excuse is much worse ported by European observers, have been than none. Our New York Fire Departquite beyond praise. It is one of the ment officials declare that such a catastragedies of history that such courage trophe would be practically impossible and devotion should have been betrayed here, and point out the precautions taken by weak and ineffective leadership. The to safeguard the public wherever there is King has been warned again and again a crowd, instancing particularly the presof late years against the policy of setting ence of a large force on and about the aside the thoroughly trained officers in stands on the day of the Grant parade. the army and substituting for them his The general efficiency of our Fire Departpersonal friends. A correspondent of

ment is indeed a just cause of pride in the “ Evening Post,” of this city, says

New York. It remains to be seen whether that the entire command both of the the investigation into the causes of the army and navy during recent operations Paris fire will be searching and result in has been in the hands of aides-de-camp the punishment of persons to whom guilt of the Crown Prince, who are men with may attach, In this respect European out military experience or talent; that cities have usually been more thorough the only Greek staff officer of high talent than those in this country. Such fatal is on half pay; that three other officers occurrences as the recent Boston exploof conspicuous ability were put out of the sion, for instance, almost never are folway in Crete; and that the officers in lowed by the conviction of criminally cornmand in Thessaly have been men of reckless or careless persons,

The social

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prominence of many of the victims of the one thing, but to minister to the material Paris fire makes it peculiarly notable wants without charge is a very different among other disasters of the kind. Of thing. The distinctions between a socialthe Duchesse d'Alençon, sister to the Em- ism which elevates the individual citizens press of Austria, every one has words of and a socialism which would convert the praise to say, and it appears probable State into a charity organization seem to from the statements of some who were have been wholly lost. The whole pfatsaved that she refused to press forward form of the Independent Labor party to escape, in order to give visitors the best reminds one of those which the Contichance to avoid the flames.

nental Socialists used to put forward in the days when they hoped only for the

support of the revolutionary dreamers. The Independent Labor party of Great It is worthy of note that while this feeble Britain has adopted a most radical pro- party in Great Britain is adopting this gramme. It declares that "the capital revolutionary platform, the German Socialnecessary for industrial operations should ists, in the hope of making themselves a be owned and used collectively,” and as majority, are putting aside Karl Marx a means to this end proposes the follow and urging social reform programmes ing definite enactments: (1) “A maximum which appeal to moderate men in other eight-hour working day and six-day week.” parties. A revolutionary party is always (2) “The provision of work to all adult a small party, unless the folly of the reapplicants at trades-union rates, with actionaries forces the moderate men to a statutory minimum of sixpence per hour side with the revolutionists. [$1 per day).” (3) “State pensions for every person over fifty years of age, and adequate provision for all widows, or

Queen's University, Canada, has given. phans, sick and disabled workers.”. (4) the degree of LL.D. to Lady Aberdeen. * Free maintenance of children while at This is the first time that this degree has school or university; free primary, secon ever been given by a Canadian institution dary, and university secular education."

to a woman, and it is reported to be the first (5) “Raising the age of child labor, with a time that it has ever been given on this view to its ultimate abolition." (6) "Aboli- continent to a woman. Of the accuracy of tion of indirect taxation, and the gradual this report we are not sure ; but certainly transference of all public burdens on to the event is a notable one.

It is notable unearned incomes, with a view to their for another reason: because it is a distinct ultimate extinction ; municipalization and recognition by a great college that wise popular control of the liquor traffic.” Some philanthropy is as worthy of academic of these planks are reasonable enough, honors as mere scholarship; for it is in the but they are in strangely visionary com realm of philanthropy that both Lord and pany. The municipalization of the liquor Lady Aberdeen have proved themselves traffic, for example, is urged by innumer- leaders.

The increasing inclination of able conservative reformers, but the “ex

universities to regard life service as not tinction"

of unearned incomes seems leșs worthy of recognition than cloistered to mean that those who work and save learning is an inclination to be welcomed, shall be denied the use of their savings— since it will tend both to make philanin other words, that the farmer who clears thropy wiser and learning more philanhis land and builds a house with his own thropic. hands must pay to the State the full rental value of his own creation. Similarly, “free primary, secondary, and uni Colorado College has just received a gift of versity secular education" is approved $10,000 in cash, the only condition attached being even by conservatives in our Western

that the name of the donor shall not be revealed. States; but the free maintenance of chil The money vill be used in erecting a hall for the dren while at school would be resented

young women's club—a greatly needed addition by Western radicals as the pauperi- will be completed by the beginning of the card

to the college buildings. This new home, which zation of its beneficiaries. To minister

term, will enable young women to secure board to the higher needs without charge is and room at $3.50 a week,

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Greater New York and the apart from State or National elections.

It will test the question whether or not Citizens' Union the municipal government of the Greater

New York is to be a prize awarded to the On Wednesday of last week Governor victor in partisan political strife, or is to Black signed the Greater New York Char- be a businesslike carrying on of the city's ter Bill. The new municipality created affairs for the best interests of the citizens contains a population of over 3,000,000, -economically, profitably, and honestly. and is exceeded in size only by London, This latter method is that proposed by the population of which is 4,500,000. The the Citizens' Union, the organization of United States had but few more people which we have here tofore described, and when Washington became its President, the platform of which we have at some while in point of wealth the estimated length outlined. That platform is, in brief : value of all the property in the Nation in The choice of candidates solely upon charWashington's time was but 750 million acter and record; Civil Service Reform dollars, while the assessed vaiue of the methods; ownership or control of city property in Greater New York is 3,000 franchises by the city ; rapid transit ; immillion. Naturally, therefore, the cam- proved schools ; tenement-house reform; paign for the election of the first Mayor better pavements and clean streets, more of the new city assumes tremendous im small parks, playgrounds, and free baths portance. The annual expenditures of in the crowded districts ; above all, nonthe new city government will exceed par:isan and efficient government. The those of the State Governments all the platforms of the Tammany and Republican seaboard States from Maine to Florida. party organizations are not yet formed, but, In the control of this expenditure the judging by present indications, they will be new Mayor will have nearly all the powers mainly made up of sneers at reformers, of usually divided be:ween the executive demands for less liberal expenditure (withand the legislature. Only by a majority out regard to results), and of well-deserved of five-sixths can the city legislature attacks the one upon the other. order any important expenditure if the

It was to be expected that every moveMayor objects. In determining appro

ment of the Citizens' Union would encounpriations for current expenses the legis- ter misrepresentation and ridicule from lature has no power whatever to increase the professional politicians of both variethe items or amounts recommended by the ties. During the past week ihese attacks Board of Estimate and Apportionment, the

have centered about two points. It has members of which, with one exception, be announced that the Citizens' Union the Mayor appoints, and among whom he will not necessarily wait for the nominasits. The first Mayor of New York will tion of its ticket until the other parties have evea greater power than any of his

are in the field. Thereupon it is assumed successors, for many of his appointees that this means an instant, rash, and illamong the heads of departments and considered selection of candidates, and administrative boards will hold over dur we are told that the early nomination of ing the term of his successor. The candidates is suicidal.

That wisdom, Mayor's own term will be for four years, care, and thought are necessary in this and during this period his rule will be important step is perfectly true; but, these almost ab olute. "The new charter pro- conditions being observed, the reform vides for a daring trial of the theory now campaign cannot begin too soon or be popular among the influential classes, waged too vigorously. The second and that a short cut to good government may

more dangerous attack is thus expressed be secured by the concentration of admin- by Senator Plalt in his satirical letter on istrative and legislative powers into the local politics given to the press last week. hands of a single individual.

Rarely in

He says: municipal history has there been greater Professing to abhor every such thing as a poneed that the people should realize the litical organization, they (referring to the Citizens importance of the emergency.

Union) have started one of their own. Professing

to detest "machine dictation,” they have created The municipal election in New York City

a nice little compact machine, which they call their next November will be the first to be held " Committee of Organization," and they have sent

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around to all the registered voters a printed power workers are tempting and immense. The of attorney requesting each voter to sign away all his primary rights with regard to the making of party leaders will yield nothing of conplatforms and the naming of candidates, and to sequence. Either the city will be possessed empower these “best citizens” to fill all the offices and governed by one of the two great within the Greater New York, binding themselves party machines, or more probably by an to accept any result they may please to give them. ill-concealed coalition between them, or I have seen a good many insolent attempts to usurp power and grab public benefits, but this perform both must be defeated by an independent ance of the best citizens,” for sheer audacity and movement. And to bring about that wanton recklessness, has no counterpart within my defeat, minor differences must be sunk; experience of politics. •

strong and wise men must be placed at In point of fact, no nominations will be the head of the movement; bargain and made by the Citizens' Union that are not compromise must be ignored. fully indorsed by the Committee of Two Hundred and Fifty—a committee made up from the ablest and best men in the city, men who stand pre-eminent in busi

Congregationalism and ness, law, banking, manufacturing, and Christian Endeavor the other leading professions and occupations, together with representative mem Our readers may remember that the bers from nearly all the associations that Rev. William Rader, a Congregational are working for good government and pastor in San Francisco, delivered last for economic and political reforms. This winter a series of sermons on the Bible, in may or may not be theoretically the best his own pulpit and to his own congregaway of making nominations. Many would tion, in which he took the view of "prolike to see some form of direct primary gressive revelation ” presented with such employed; but in the peculiar nature of ability by Dr. Samuel Harris, of Yale, in the case the enrollment of Citizens' Union his “Self-Revelation of God," and apsupporters will be continuous until elec- plied it to the elucidation of the Bible, in tion day, and it is preposterous to ask, as the same spirit in which it has been apsome half-hearted approvers of the move- plied by such scholars as Driver, Cheyne, ment are asking, that no nominations Farrar, Fremantle, and Horton abroad, shall be made until the enrollment is and by Bartlett, Peters, Bacon, Moore, “ completed.” Moreover, this is no time Curtiss, Gordon, and Gladden in the for experiments or half-measures. The United States. For this he has been taken Citizens' Union will have to stand or fall to task by the “Occident,” the Presbyon the merits of its ticket. If that shall terian organ of San Francisco, which has be weak, the fall will be overwhelming; if, a perfect right to criticise and condemn as we believe probable, the ticket shall his utterances if it thinks them unscripbe strong and worthy of public confi. tural and erroneous. But the “Occidence, no one will hesitate to support it dent” has gone much further. A Nabecause it has been placed before the tional Christian Endeavor Convention is voters by another method than that of to be held at San Francisco this summer, the old-fashioned party machinery. Mr. and Mr. Rader, who is an active leader Lauterbach said the other day, “ Better in the Society of Christian Endeavor, is have as Mayor a true Democrat, or cven chairman of the local committee on pulpit a Tammany man, than a man responsible supply. The “Occident” demands that to no party and with no party behind he resign from this position, and, since he him.” Senator Platt's letter abounds in refuses to do so, that he be put out of his sneers, only half-concealed, at all that has

office by those having charge of the arbeen non-partisan in the present city gov- rangements.

It puts the issue in the ernment. There is hardly any attempt following words: to hide the politician's aversion to every

Is it the settled purpose of the Pulpit Supply thing that municipal reformers are seeking. Committee of '97 to retain the Rev. William It is a bad year for a compromise ticket Rader as their chairman ? made up by “straight" Republicans Committee and Endeavor officials everywhere that and non-partisan voters. Greater New

a most serious blunder is being persisted in, which

may lead to disastrous consequences. York's possibilities for the machine party question at issue is far more than an individual

If so, we warn the

... The

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