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HAWARDEN SERVANTS WHO HAVE BEEN OVER TWENTY YEARS IN THE GLADSTONE SERVICE
The man holding the scythe is the gardener
tion, there are only pennyand half-penny papers in Great Britain and Ireland now. There is not one of those cheap papers that is not far superior in its array of news and in the style of its writing to any of the high-priced journals which were enabled to exist thirty years ago by the legislation which Mr. Gladstone abolished. No other man could have done the work so well as he did. Cobden could not have done it, Bright could not have done it. For neither of these men office, and neither had the command of the House of Commons which was possessed by Mr. Gladstone. Likewise, it has to be said that neither of them could have had the same influence over Lord Palmerston which Mr. Gladstone was
MR. GLADSTONE READING THE LESSONS IN HAWARDEN CHURCH enabled to exert.
From a contemporary illustration Palmerston did not really care three straws about the repeal of ston's views as to popular reform were the taxes upon education, or, indeed, about of much the same nature. He would just any other popular reform. But then his as soon have no popular reform as any. heart was not set so much the other way But if pressed upon the subject, he soon as to induce him to enter into a struggle found out that he would just as soon have for power with Mr. Gladstone. Palmer- any popular reform as none whatever. ston knew perfectly well that Gladstone Such a man had no chance at all against was the coming man, and that if he were the ever-growing energy and earnestness to set himself in opposition to Mr. Glad- of Mr. Gladstone. His very style of stone, or make any serious attempt at re- speaking in the House, easy and collostraint of Mr. Gladstone, the national will quial, humorous, full of shrewd hits, and of the country would put the younger man occasionally enlivened by a somewhat in the more commanding place. There is cheap cynicism, was in curious contrast a story of a philosopher who said of him- with the impassioned and majestic flow of self that he would just as soon be dead as Mr. Gladstone's convinced and convincalive. Being asked why, then, he did not ing eloquence. The two men never really kill himself, he made the very reasonable came into antagonism at all.
But they and consistent answer that he would just represented two distinct influences, and as soon be alive as dead. Lord Palmer- had Lord Palmerston been a younger
man it is quite likely that the influences In his early college days Mr. Gladstone might have come into collision at one developed a strong passion for riding. I time or another. Lord Palmerston's chief do not know whether he ever cared to interest was in foreign affairs, and there, ride to hounds or not; but he certainly curiously enough, his policy was rather loved riding for its own sake, quite apart revolutionary in its tendency. Mr. Glad- from the fascination of hunting; and he stone was almost always in sympathy became a rider of marvelous skill and with every foreign cause that represented courage. Often have I seen him, in my freedom and advancement, but his dearest younger days, galloping over the fields interests were with the happiness and around Chester-close to the Welsh fronwith the improvement of the people of tier, within which stands Hawarden Cashis own two islands. So far as home tle, The famous American horse tamer, affairs were concerned, Lord Palmerston's Rarey, when he was in England, spoke of great idea was to put off any sort of Mr. Gladstone as one of the finest and trouble, to let things slide, to keep away boldest riders he had ever seen-and as long as possible any effort at reform- Rarey was a man who, on such subjects, ing things which perhaps after all could quite knew what he was talking about. do just as well without reform, and, gen- Years after, when Mr. Gladstone was erally speaking, not to make any bother. Chancellor of the Exchequer, he was takMr. Gladstone's whole soul was with po- ing his usual ride in the park--Hyde Park litical and social reform. He saw with -on a very spirited and even wild young the eye of genius and of philanthropy that horse. The horse plunged and ran away these countries were oppressed by what got off the ordinary track of riders and must be called class legislation, and his came along a spread of turf divided by whole soul was aflame to give help to rails and gateways. The horse made for those who could not help themselves. one of the little gateways-of light and Lord Palmerston, though he lived to a slender iron--and went straight over it. good old age, did not live long enough to Mr. Gladstone was apparently quite detercome to any serious extent in the way of mined to have the better of that horse. Mr. Gladstone's progress. Indeed, about The moment the horse had leaped the the time of Gladstone's scheme for the gate the rider turned him round and put abolition of the paper duties it became a him at the gate again. Again he topped common saying among the followers of it, and again his master turned him and Mr. Cobden and Mr. Bright that Radicals made him go at it once more, and surmust wait quietly until Palmerston's dis mount it yet another time. So it went appearance, and that then Gladstone
on until the horse was fairly but very would come to the front and would do harmlessly conquered, and the rider was the work which the country wanted. Up the supreme victor of the day. It is hardly to this time Mr. Gladstone had not spoken necessary for me to say that this little inout distinctly on the great question of the cident was watched by many curious eyes, Parliamentary franchise. But people al- and that it found its way into the papers. ready saw that that would be his next I happened to be in London at the time, work of reform, and that he was destined and was deeply interested. I saw auguto be the leader of the people in England. ries in it, and I do not think my prophetic From the days when Macaulay had de inspirations were altogether disappointed scribed him as the hope of the stern and by the result. It would take a very reckunbending Tories, what a distance he had less horse or a very reckless political opalready traversedi He was now the great ponent to get the better of Mr. Gladstone. hope of the Radical advocates of reform He has made his party face many a stiff and progress. Cobden and Bright now fence since the far-off days of that little began to call him the leader of the English event in Hyde Park. democracy.
[To be continued in the Magazine Number for July]
By Helen Marshall North
In Two Parts—I. A cathedral and a hu- the fabric of the structure and note when, man being have certain in its uprearing, the work of the Norman striking points of resem- bishop gave place to his Early English blance. Each may be successor, and how the window-tracery studied superficially, and revealed the changing ideas of the Deco
passed by as interesting rated and Perpendicular periods; how or otherwise, but each fails clerestory gradually overcame triforium, to utter its individuality and the stout Norman pillar and the fierce and to surrender the choic- zigzag ornament faded away from the est of its treasures to the architect's plan as the age became more hurried visitor. The heart refined. of a true man does not lie Any English cathedral, however small on the surface. Stay by and dingy and "unrestored,” is a treashim, summer and winter ure-house of interest to the intelligent with him, test his strength traveler. It is an indignity to attempt and courage in all weathers to understand its real meaning in the two and under all conditions, or three hours' visit which many a tourist
and you may then realize allows for it. Far more reasonable and what a glorious creation he is. So with satisfactory will it be found to become the cathedral; you may see its surface thoroughly acquainted with one or two of in an hour; you may become reason the most interesting than to be able to ably familiar with its general appear- record in one's note-book that a halfance in a half-day, pass on to the next dozen have been visited. point of interest in the itinerary, and A cathedral may be looked at in many forget the cathedral. But if you will ways, but the choicest, as Miss Margaretta study its history, learn the story of the Byrd has ably said, “ is that in which the lives that have clustered about it, of the historical interest blends with the religious great men whose memorials richly decorate and ästhetic, and these with a passion, walls and pavement, and of those who one may call it, for the race which finds have loved to linger within these old gray its satisfaction in buildings made by men walls, which were to them indeed "the of that race.” Regarded in this light, gateway of heaven;" of the bishops who cathedrals are not monuments, “ they are built the cathedral and who lie interred poems, breathing the life and progress of under those stiff stone effigies; of the England, never scorning to represent any kings and queens who have rustled down period, however dull, ... always keeping these grand aisles in the bravery of wed before one the ideal of the race.” ding garments, while the lofty arches No two men are precisely alike. With rang with the grand music of the organ; the same tastes, the same name, the same of the little royal children who were education, and the same social advantages, christened here, like the children of King each has an individuality which reveals Edwin of York, “who died while still in itself on acquaintance. This is equally their white clothes," or like the little true of cathedrals. One may say that Durchild of Queen Philippa, laid away in ham, Norwich, and Gloucester are chiefly darkness while the sun shone mockingly Norman in style, but who that has visited through the glorious old glass windows, the three does not think of them as three learn of these and the cathedral will not distinct and individual types ? Salisbury be forgotten. Sympathy, appreciation, presents an epitome of Early English and personal affection will be awakened in architecture, but has less to say of Engthe heart. The cathedral becomes trans lish history; while solemn old Winchester figured by the light of humanity. Study has witnessed so many royal pageants,
and is so intimately connected with the collected funds to build while he drew very fiber of the English national life, that plans for the lordly structure. He adthe pages of many periods of the nation's ministered his priestly office, crowned history must be read if one would enter kings, sat in Parliament, and considered into its inner life, At Canterbury, the the interests of his more or less numerheroism (or the folly) of a single priest, ous episcopal residences. Hence the resulting in his violent death within the architectural and the historical often sughallowed walls, is the most striking story gest each other as one studies. which the loquacious verger has to tell. How, then, shall we take up the study Ecclesiastical history is, perhaps, the spe- of cathedral architecture? The best way, cialty of Canterbury. It must be studied as it seems to me, is to become very from more than one standpoint, and the familiar at the outset with all the terms of relations of A'Becket and the second ecclesiastical architecture in general, withHenry, the story of kiogcraft versus pries:- out reference to any particular cathedral. craft, must be understood in some degree Having gained familiarity with the more if one would comprehend the meaning of common terms used in ecclesiastical archithe worn Pilgrim stairs, the rich shrine, and tecture, the way to further study is easily those splendid pilgrimages which repre- revealed A plan arranged on this basis sented the modern foreign tour to the great will be outlined in this and the succeedworld of the Middle Ages. And, in ad- ing paper. dition to this, the student should learn For introductory study, I can heartily something of the life of the Black Prince, recommend a small English publication whose name is so intimately connected called “Gothic and Renaissance Archiwith crypt and choir-aisle and noble tecture.” (Imported, $2.) It is one of a tomb; of the French Huguenots, whose series of “Art Handbooks," edited by Sir relics and present-day history still linger E. J. Poynter, the recently elected President in the old crypt; and of saucy Blue Dick, of the Royal Academy, and Professor T. who laid bare the glorious nave.
Roger Smith, Professor of Architecture at Some cathedrals must be studied in the University of London. This particular connection with the locality in which they volume is by Professor Smith, and shows are placed, as Ely, majestic and lovely in a well-nigh perfect conception of what a itself, but increasingly interesting when beginner in the study of ecclesiastical considered in the midst of the fenland, in architecture wishes to know. The author's those days when William the Conqueror style is clear, his sentences compact, his was “harrying " the land, when Hereward illustrations well chosen and illuminating. and Torfrida, Ivo Taillebois and the The introductory chapter is an epitome monks of Peterborough, Ely, and Croy- (very brief, it must be confessed) of the land, were making history. Again, at history of church-building in England Durham, the cathedral made the town; and on the Continent of Europe. The and here history both ecclesiastical and second chapter, on “The Buildings of the secular, biography of lordly prince-bishop, Middle Ages," unfolds the plan and structhe study of monasticism in its most tural elements of cathedral churches in ornate period, the poetry of Scott, the England, and lucidly defines each feature theology of Butler, and the art of mediæ of the church and monastic buildings, as val days, should all be found in the equip- well as of the military and domestic buildment of the visitor.
ings, of the Middle Ages. In the two sucFor practical purposes of the traveler ceeding chapters, occupying together only or the student, we may divide the study of thirty-four pages, an admirable analysis of a cathedral into two general departments: the different parts of a cathedral, the plan, that of the fabric itself and of the history walls, towers and spires, gables, piers of its existence. On account of the pe- and columns, openings, roofs, ornaments, culiarly intimate union between English stained glass, and sculpture, is given. This Church and English State, closer and analysis is intelligently illustrated, and by more vital in the days when cathedrals using in connection with it the illustrated were building than now, ecclesiastical and glossary, even a young student may easily secular history often flow together. The become acquainted with the general and bishop was often his own architect, and more important features of a cathedral