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Published Every Saturday
Vol. 56
May 1, 1897

No. 1
HE past week has made side of the Turks, together with all the
very clear the desperate advantages of a much larger and much
character of the war upon better-equipped army. The dash of the
which the Greeks have Greeks through the frontier was splendid,
embarked against immense but it was against hopeless odds, and the

odds in numbers, equip- last week has not only demonstrated the ment, and military resources of every kind. failure of that movement, but has brought The strategy on each side has been ob- the Turks well within the plains of Thesvious from the start. The Greeks en- saly. The campaign in the east has cendeavored, in their first irregular move tered mainly around the two passes of Miment, to get through the mountain passes luna and Reveni, where the fighting has on their frontier before the Turks had been stubborn and desperate. There are time to take advantage of their position. no more reckless fighters than the Turks, They were handicapped by the unfairness but it is so long since the Greeks have been of the Great Powers which are banded engaged in actual warfare that there was together to preserve the “integrity” of some uncertainty as to the manner in the Turkish Empire. The boundary be- which they would carry themselves. Their tween Thessaly and Macedonia proposed valor, however, is likely to make Reveni to the Berlin Congress of 1878 ran from and Miluna as memorable in their future a point on the Gulf of Salonica north of history as the pass of Thermopylæ. The Mount Olympus to a point on the Alba- main advance of the Turkish force has nian coast nearly opposite Corfu. This been through Miluna, and on Friday a line would have b:en easy of defense for desperate battle was fought at Mati, not the Greeks, and the Powers accepted it ; far south of the Thessalian side of the but Turkey declined to fall in with their pass.

As a result of the battle the Greek
decision, and, in obedience to the Turkish army was driven back upon Larissa, its
demand, the original boundary, which ran headquarters; and, being still further
from the northeast corner of the Gulf of pushed, that town was abandoned, and at
Arta to a point near the entrance of the this writing the army has retreated 10
Gulf of Volo, was allowed to remain. Pharsala, which is almost in a direct line
Sixteen years ago the boundary was

south of Larissa, where a new line of de-
finally settled by Turkey and the Great fense is being rapidly established. The
Powers without any reserence to the de- Greek spirit appears to be unbroken. In
mands of Greece, the latter country re spite of the disasters of the week there has
ceiving but a small part of the territory · been no panic at Athens, and great con-
which had been set apart for her by the fidence is expressed by the Greek Gov-
Berlin Congrass; and the frontier was so ernment in the outcome of the struggle.
drawn as to make it very difficult of de-
fense by the Greeks and very easy of
access to the Turks.

It is very probable that the present
week will see the crisis of the struggle.

The Greeks are hurrying every available What the Greeks feared and the Turks man to the frontier, and the Turks are planned for in this arrangement has been pressing forward with equal energy. There fully realized during the past two weeks. is still a body of Greeks on the northern Every natural advantage has been on the side of the mountain chain in the neigh

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borhood of Damasi, and this body, the and fighter of a very high order. On his dispatches assert, has been threatening return to Constantinople at the close of Elassona, the Turkish headquarters. If the war he was appointed Minister of the force is large enough to make a War, and gained powerful influence over serious attempt upon Elassona, the invad- the Sultan. His position opened him, ing Turkish army will be threatened by a however, to the attacks of that group of movement in its rear which may place it men always to be found in the palace of in a very perilous position ; but it is much every Sultan, who form a kind of kitchen more likely that the Greeks are in peril, cabinet, whose aim it is to discredit every because of the smallness of their force able and intelligent public servant, and and the closing in of the Turkish armies. to control the Sultan for their own purIn the Gulf of Salonica and on the west poses. Osman was practically disgraced, ern shore of the Gulf of Arta the Greek and has been, to all intents and purposes, fleeis have been very active during the a State prisoner for many years past. past week, shelling small towns held by Now Izzet Bey, the Sultan's favorite, and the Turks, and destroying munitions of a man who is believed to have been one war of various kinds. By destroying mil- of the prime movers in the extinction of itary stations which are used by the Turks the Armenians, has been disgraced, and as bases of supplies, the Greek navy is Osman Pasha has been sent to the froninflicting very serious injury, and may do tier to take general command of the Turksomething to turn the tide of Turkish ish campaign against Greece. What this

The report that a Greek fleet is may mean as a matter of Turkish hisgoing to make the attempt to pass through tory at Constantinople Europe is asking the Dardanelles is not credited. The with a good deal of curiosity. Meanwaters of that strait are sown thick with while, the sympathy of the Christian torpedoes, and its shores are lined almost world with the Greeks in their desperate continuously with heavy batteries of mod- struggle grows more and more marked. ern guns.

The Greeks are equal to any Contributions of money are being sent heroic and brilliant enterprise, but it is freely to aid the Greek cause ; prayers doubtful if they will attempt anything so were offered up in many churches in all desperate as this.

parts of the world on Sunday; and the feeling of Christendom is indicated by a

cartoon in one of the comic papers repreWhat makes the outlook for Greece still senting the Sultan standing on a cannon, more serious is the appearance at the seat waving his scimitar in the air and shoutof war of Osman Pasha, the greatest of the ing to the Great Powers behind him, Turkish commanders, and one of the most Onward, Christian Soldiers !" distinguished soldiers of the century. Europe is very much puzzled by the sudden advent of Osman on the Greek fron Ten years ago the British Parliament tier. Born in Asia Minor some time in passed an Act wbich gave to the Austrathe third decade of the century, studying lasian Colonies the right of representation the art of war in Constantinople, entering in a Federal Council. The Council was the cavalry service in 1854, distinguish- empowered to make laws applicable to ing himself at a very early age, Osman all the colonies represented. Some colPasha had gained a large military experi- onies declined to take advantage of it, ence and had shown very unusual mili- and intercolonial distrust was at that time tary gifts before his supreme opportunity so great that the realization of came in the Russo-Turkish war twenty of federation seemed likely to remain for years ago. In September, 1877, he de- many years in abeyance. About four feated the allied Russian and Roumanian years ago, however, the late Sir Henry forces in one of the most severely con Parkes, the veteran Australian statesman, tested battles of modern times. The revived the project on the plan of the siege of Plevna followed, and Osman's Dominion of Canada. The Federal Condefense of that city was one of the most vention, in which all the Governments of brilliant exploits of recent years. It es Australasia except Queensland, New Zeatablished his reputation as a strategist land, and Fiji are represented, is the re

any scheme

sult. The Convention proposes a feder- clared through the Democratic party in ation by which the various colonies are favor of tariff reform. Canadian Liberals to retain autonomy in local affairs, but in naturally followed this lead, expecting respect to customs, excise, and the army that an opportunity for reciprocity would and navy will be under common control. be given. Now, however, the United Federal government will consist of a Sen States has apparently returned to high ale and House of Representatives, together protection. Mr. Fielding does not give up with a Federal Supreme Court and a Gov- hope of reciprocity with the United States, ernor-General, appointed by the Crown. but in the meantime Canada will deal Thus prepared, the Federal Constitution with those countries willing to reciprocate. will be laid for discussion before the re Hence there is to be an innovation of spective Colonial Parliaments. After such great moment both to Great Britain and discussion the Convention will reassem to ourselves. This is an offer to all counble, reconsider the Constitution, and sub. tries admitting Canadian exports free or mit it directly to the people for adoption on “a favorable entrance,” to admit their or rejection. If adopted, it will be sent goods in turn into Canada under a minby the Colonial Parliaments to the Impe- imum tariff one-quarter below the regular rial Parliament and to the Queen for as or maximum duty. This treatment will sent. This movement, than which none cause rejoicing among British exporters, could conduce more to the solidarity of the who had last year to face an average duty British Empire reminds us of the days of twenty-two per cent. on goods sent to of the Philadelphia Convention. One Canada, whereas the average duty to our question has apparently been decided in exporters was but thirteen per cent. From Australia in a way involving a greater en this general minimum tariff beer, spirits, croachment upon States' rights than exists sugar, molasses, silk, and tobacco are exhere, namely, the power over excise duties. cepted. The history of tariff-tinkering A more interesting feature, however, is the on both sides of the border may thus dedirect submission of the Constitution to lay, but cannot prevent, ultimate comthe people. Neither our Constitution nor mercial union between ourselves and the the Canadian was ever submiited directly Canadians. to a popular vote; they were referred, the one to State Conventions, the other to the Colonial Legislatures.

The death of William S. Holman removes from public life a man who has

been conspicuous for a long period, and On Thursday of last week the Hop. whose total public service exceeded forty W. S. Fielding, Minister of Finance, sub- years. Born in Indiana in 1822, receivmitted the new Canadian tariff to the ing a common-school education in his Parliament at Ottawa. Mr. Fielding native town, with an additional two pointed out that there was a deficit of a years of study at Franklin College, Indithird of a million dollars for the financial ana, he began life as a district schoolyear ending June 30, 1896; for the cur teacher in the days when such teachers rent financial year he estimated that the “boarded round" among the patrons of deficiency would reach half a million; and the school. He became dissatisfied with for the next financial year, notwithstand- his work, studied law, was admitted to ing tariff changes, there might be a short the bar, went into politics, became Judge age of three-quarters of a million. The of the Court of Probate, later a prosecutfirst important feature of the new tariff is ing attorney, then a member of a Constithe reduction of the duties on iron. Dur tutional Convention, then a member of ing recent years taxes on the raw material the Indiana Legislature, and entered the had exceeded the protective duty on the House of Representatives in 1852. From finished article, and thus helped the United the very beginning of his career in the States instead of Canada. The second House Mr. Holman was a vigorous and feature is the double schedule favoring persistent advocate of economy, objecting Great Britain. When the Liberal party to every new expenditure and to many laid down its policy of tariff for revenue

old ones when he considered them in any only, the United States had already de sense unnecessary or immoderate. His

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opposition was often very harassing, and pay three per cent of their gross receipts he soon acquired many nicknames, among into the city treasury. At one of the others “the great objector” and “the mass-meetings Mr. Ela, of the Civic Fedwatchdog of the Treasury." His honesty eration, Mayor Harrison, and Alderman and integrity were above suspicion, and Harlan--the principal Republican candi. he took an attitude toward public expend- date for Mayor at the recent electionilures which, unhappily, had been very were among the speakers. The enthusirare among our public men. That atti was intense, and the feeling extude was not always, however, an intelli- pressed toward the Chicago Senators who gent or even a consistent one.

He was had voted for the obnoxious bills was but frequently an irrational obstructionist. little short of violent. The entire city His ideas of economy were often narrow government of Chicago—including every and unintelligent. He was an out-and- member of the Board of Aldermen except out Democrat, but during the war was a the State Senator who has a seat in the firm friend of the administration and of local body-opposes the bills. The tradesthe Union cause. He represented a type unions oppose them, all the reform orof Western public men which has now ganizations oppose them, and all the almost disappeared from our political life. newspapers oppose them; and yet they

passed the Senate by more than a two

Thirds majority. Fortunately, the great By a vote of 34 to 22 the United States demonstrations of popular feeling against Senate has adopted the Nelson substitute the action of the Senate have made a profor the Torrey Bankruptcy Bill which has found impression upon the House of Repbeen urged upon Congress for so many resentatives, and a majority of that body years. The substitute is believed to deal

now seems to be pledged against the bills. much more considerately with debtors Chicago, therefore, stands a chance to se. than the original measure. According to cure reductions in street-railway fares its provisions a merchant cannot be forced corresponding with the reduced cost of into‘insolvency unless he transfers or service, as soon as the old franchises exencumbers some of his property so as to pire, in 1903. There is hardly a ques“prefer or defraud" any of bis creditors. tion that three-cent fares to-day would In case of voluntary bankruptcy the yield a larger profit than five cent fares charges for the settlement of the estate twenty-five years ago. are rigidly limited. The vote against the substitute came chiefly from Eastern Republicans and "gold" Democrats. The In Indianapolis, Indiana, the period of friends the Torrey Bill still hope to three-cent fares lasted but a week. The revive their measure in the House, and Uni'ed States District Court has declared induce the Senate to accept it in Confer- the three-cent-fare law unconstitutional, ence Committee. The tariff discussions on the ground that it applied only to of the past week have virtually insured Indianapolis and was, therefore, special the rejection by the Senate of the retro- legislation. However, the charter of the active clause of the House bill. A duty Indianapolis Company expires in 1901. on hides now seems to be inevitable, as In four years, therefore, the citizens there Senator Allison, of Iowa-a member of expect to obtain permanently the privilege the Finance Committee--is one of the of moderate fares. In Pennsylvania RepWestern men supporting it.

resentative Clinton Rogers Woodruff has introduced a bill limiting franchises to a maximum of thirty years.

In New York The economic news of the week relates a newly organized society has obtained almost exclusively to the street railway from a large number of leading conservaproblem. In Chicago two tremendous tives a declaration of faith in the principle mass-meetings have been held to protest that property rights attaching to the city against the passage of the Humphrey streeis properly belong to the city, while Bills by the State Senate. These meas in Boston a Citizens' Committee with ures propose to establish five-cent fares such men as Edward Everett Hale, Profor fifty years, on condition that the roads fessor Frank Parsons, and Thomas Went

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worth Higginson at its head-has held preceding artificial stimulus to produca joint mass-meeting and issued a series tion. of invaluable tracts in favor of the public ownership of street railways. The tracts that have been issued should be purchased The decision of the Court of Appeals and studied by every one interested in of New York State in the Brooklyn civil the question. Altogether the demand for service case, though naturally discouragmunicipal control of municipal monopo- ing to those who thought that there were lies bids fair soon to become as strong in no more battles to be fought since the this country as it is in England.

adoption of the civil service clause in the new Constitution, does not seem to us

to justify either the criticisms which During the past week the business have been leveled against it or the disworld has been disturbed, not so much by couragement to which it has given rise. the actual Græco-Turkish war as by the Without going into details, which for our melancholy failure of the six European readers would be needless, the essential Powers to maintain peace, and by the anxi- principles involved may be briefly stated. ety lest a general European conflict might The Constitution provides that “appointresult from present conditions. Wheat ments and promotions in the civil service advanced sharply, and has retained most of of the State shall be made accordthe advance ; stocks fell. Rates for foreign ing to merit and fitness, to be ascertained exchange advanced to the gold exporting so far as practicable by examinations, point. The rise in wheat is natural, since which so far as practicable shall be comthe adjacent Balkan countries which may be petitive." The Court olds that the drawn into the conflict produced last year Legislature is required to provide the Dearly one hundred and fifty million bushels methods for the enforcement of this proof wheat, Turkey forty million, and Greece vision in its letter and spirit, and exnearly six million. These latter supplies presses its faith that the Legislature will are, of course, withdrawn from the market; do this at an early date. It seems to those of Russia, three hundred and twenty deny that the Constitution can be enmillion bushels, and of the Balkan States forced by the courts without legislative may also be withdrawn. In the stock enactment. It declares, furthermore, that market there has been much feverishness “ where the duties of the position are not in international securities, and on the merely clerical, but are delegated by the European exchanges the decline in Turk- head of the office because of his own ish and Greek bonds has naturally been numerous duties, require skill, judga marked one. Producing States out- ment, trust, and confidence, and involve side the countries immediately engaged the responsibility of the officer him-elf, in war gain commercially, because indus- it is not practicable to fill them by try is interrupted in the warring States, merely competitive examinations." In and hence the markets of the latter go, such cases much must be left to the for the time at least, into the hands of authority and discretion of the appointed rival foreign producers, who may have officer. The Court does not hold that the long coveted an introduction to competing decision of the Mayor of a city or the markets. Referring to this, the

Com- Governor of the State as to the classificamercial and Financial Chronicle” does tion of offices is final.

On the contrary, well to point out that, like all other arti- it distinctly declares that “his action is ficial diversions of general trade, the subject to review," though it holds, in the advantage must in the end be greatly particular case before it, that no facts are qualified. Europe's general industrial stated which justify the Court in setting stagnation after the close of the Napo- aside the classification made by Mayor leonic wars, the reaction following ihe Wurster. Incidentally the Court states termination of our own Civil War, and that a law which should give the officer that of the Franco-German war, are cases

who has to make the appointment power in point. Reaction is a certainty, and it to examine the applicants, and in that has been the rather uniform experience way determine who should be the apthat it is peculiarly serious because of the pointee, “would practically nullify the

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