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sions to a broader interpretation of life. XVI. Nor would it be surprising if Again, the spirit and style of Voltaire Madame Necker should appear at the and Rousseau, though so individually door-Madame Necker, who had once contrasted, exercised a united influence engaged to marry the great Gibbon. upon men of letters, even upon those After having been expelled from Magdawho combated their doctrines. This was len College, Oxford, for having abjured seen first of all in a betterment of literary the national faith (a truer reason might manner, and afterwards also of matter. have been because he disliked the As to the individual characteristics of University and the University disliked Voltaire and Rousseau, however, we can him), the young Gibbon came to the hardly overcontrast them. Many a fer- shores of the Lake of Geneva. Here he vent Christian thinks of the two men quickly fell so completely under Voltaire's as being precisely alike, because they influence as to prepare himself for the represent to him a quintessence of eight- issuance of an important book in French. eenth-century infidelity. In truth, hardly The memory of those formative years in another two were more unlike. Switzerland must have come back more Voltaire loved drawing-rooms; Rousseau, than once to the matured man who had forests. Voltaire was a thorough aristo- returned to the shores of that exquisite crat; Rousseau was the founder of mod- lake to finish his monumental work, “The ern democracy. Voltaire believed in Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire." monarchies and royal rule; Rousseau's But we are at Coppet. If Necker's proudest title was “Citizen of Geneva.” irrepressible daughter Germaine should Voltaire was a cynic, but he continually suddenly emerge from the bushes, it craved polite society; Rousseau was a would be a surprise. The old-fashioned dreamer, and knew that his dreams could furnishings in house and grounds are come true only through the bourgeoisie. too appropriately stiff to form anything Voltaire's philosophy was pessimistic; but a background for stiff, old-fashRousseau's, optimistic. Voltaire's relig- ioned people. The unbending forms of ion was materialistic; Rousseau's, spir- the Compagnie des Pasteurs themselves itua). Voltaire was a mind only; Rous- would be more in harmony than the seau, a mind, heart, and soul.

hoydenish daughter of the house and her When the tourist has gone as far as free-and-easy Parisian friends who folFerney, he will

lowed her to this wish to go a little

Swiss home. We further and visit

do not learn, howCoppet, another

ever, that among Genevan suburb.

those followers Here, even more

was an Englishthan at Voltaire's

man, the young home, one is trans

Pitt, whom Madported into the

ame Necker wantpast-transported

ed to secure as a so truly that it

son-in-law. The would hardly be

Baron de Staëlsurprising to see

Holstein attained the old owner of

that position. An the château

unideal existence Coppet, Jacques

followed—a sucNecker, in the be

cession of oscilcoming dress of

lations

between his time, pacing

Coppet and Paris, along the quiet

between liberty walks. Necker was a Genevese

where. The by birth, and be- ANNE LOUISE GERMAINE NECKER, BARONESS DE STAėl French Republic, came the Finance

the Directory, the Minister of Louis Historian, essayist, novelist, and politician. Her home was at

Consulate and the

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at

and license every

1766-1817

Coppet, a Genevan suburb.

JEAN HENRI MERLE D'AUBIGNÉ

1794-1872

1773-1842

cal economist. The author of standard and widely read books.

author ofia monumental History of the
Reformation."

they have had. From babyhood Rodolphe Töpffer drew pictures, and, when his eyes forbade his laboring longer at his art, he became a schoolmaster for the time, and then his schoolmastership developed into a professorship, but he left no very brilliant record as a pedagogue. He has left a somewhat brilliant record as an

author. European JEAN CHARLES LÉONARD DE SISMONDI

teachers and schol

ars have the comThe Genevan historian, essayist, and politi The Genevan professor and preacher. The fortable fashion of

taking walking tours Empire were all alarmed at the fervid, vol- which might be imitated here more than

together—a fashion uble, often unwomanly Madame de Staël, it is.' Master and pupils thus form a who would not be put down. Sensational comradeship impossible in any other way. as she might have been in politics, her real 'So, little by little, other pictures were talent was in literature. Despite their drawn by Töpffer with the pen, slowly sentimentality and “ falsetto passion," her and painfully and interruptedly at first we romances are imbued with a certain art 'must believe. The “Voyages en Ziglessness; despite their prolixity, her more zag” were written, and the “ Nouvelles thoughtful works show an appreciative Genevoise's; they were the introducers cosmopolitanism needed in that day. of novel, picturesque, and acceptable feaThrough her Goethe and Schiller and tures into literature. Schlegel were introduced to France, the The realization that Amiel's death ocyoung Guizot and Sismondi to Germany. curred only a decade and a half ago It is a pity that her social principles comes with something of surprise to one and those of the time were not purer ; who has ventured to put the “ Journal her really sincere nature would have had Intime” alongside Thoreau and Emerson, more lasting influence. Sismondi is the name which comes nat- has, indeed, left us some exquisite self

not to say Seneca and Epictetus. Amiel urally to mind after that of his hostess, revelations, but it seems as if M. Scherer Madame de Staël. The works of Sismondi and Mrs. Humphry Ward, in their introrise like a green island out of a sea of social ductions to the French and English ediand literary unrest. We like to look back tions of the “ Journal,” had pitched the on that genuine representative of Geneva. receptive tone of our minds on too high a His literary achievements mean literary key. When we go to Geneva we may health ; normal, not abnormal, conditions. chance upon a criticism from one who His “ Literature of Southern Europe knew Amiel-a criticism which may let us is a standard book still ; quotations are down just a bit. For, as a citizen of frequently made from his excellent “ His- Geneva, as a professor at the University, tory of the Italian Republics," and less frequently from his “ Histoire des Fran- failure; as a recluse, a self-conscious, a

as a social force, Amiel was a distinct çais." State Socialists found an early sup- sensitive, a melancholy man, and as a litport in his “ Studies of Social Science." Fifty years ago there died a Genevan Genevans, however, do not seem to take

erary artist, he was a conspicuous success. whose books deserve wider reading than so much stock in his seventeen thousand

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folio pages of literary legacy as do out- terely Teutonic framework is spread out
side folk. When one wants a bit of well- the clear expression of a Gallic vivacity,
turned individuality,these pages will supply the whole permeated with a spiritual fer-
it; but when one seeks for some well-tuned vency which no country bounds.
altruism, hardly. Amiel was un-Genevese; Töpffer and Amiel were failures as pro-
bis ideals were lofty, many of them, but fessors. Marc Monnier was a success;
he seems to have been born with only his hearers came from all over Europe.
thought and feeling; will was absent. He was as much of a success, too, in liter-
His introspection became morbid, of ature. He was an entirely natural being,

We see every day on he streets either in his fascinating converstional of Geneva men who look as Sismondi powers or in his essays and verses. He must have looked ; but we seek in vain was such a vital, virile æsthete that the for the delicate child, the dreamy youth, aroma of a living force breathes in every the shrinking man,

page of his writings. Amiel. He was all

Is he describing along what children

Italy, or the Genevan call a “ 'fraid cat."

poets, or his favorite Hence he left no

marionette theater ? substance of person

We shall not find ality, as every real

an easier speaker, a man does; he is but

kindlier voice, a shadow. He owed

more discriminating his professorial posi

mind, a more piction to the Radicals.

turesque manner. Consequently the

Geneva has been old Conservatives

called a gray city. were hard on him.

Yes, most of its He complained. He

houses are gray, it is himself turned on

true, and on a gray the Radicals, much

day the sober hue to their disgust. He

seems emphasized. complained again.

For the nonce, the Then he turned on

waters of the lake man in general; only

may

be somber, God could satisfy

too, when the wind him, and he spent

changes. The very his life in trying to

faces on the streets find God. At the

seem stern. At such end he came back

times shudder somewhat to the ap

MARY ANN EVANS (“GEORGE ELIOT ") steals over one as preciation of his hu

that past is recalled mankind, and, lo, The great novelist. From the portrait painted during her

which would take residence of a year (1850) in Geneva. there was God in the

joyousness out of midst! Minute self-revelations such as this present life, and make even of the this truly intime and now almost classic glad Beyond only an impenetrable arch journal affords are needed; it is a pity of doom. But let the clouds break away, that they are not always revelations of and we notice that not all the houses are an unselfish self.

gray. The wind changes back, and the Jean Henri Merle d'Aubigné died in waters become beautifully blue between 1872. He was the Professor of Histori- the umbrageous shores. Though there cal Theology at the Divinity School, and is somberness in the faces of the people, is universally known through his great there is vivacity, too. They are intelwork, the "History of the Reformation.” ligent faces; every o:her person seems to Men have outgrown this book in scientific be carrying a book or paper. The Geaccuracy, but it is of much literary value nevan book-shops are justly famous, and as reflecting better than most works a Genevan literature has helped to make genuine Genevan spirit: on its rather aus

them so.

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1819-1880

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WILLIAM EWART GLADSTONE
From a drawing made not far from the period of the following installment of "The Story of Gladstone's Life."

By Justin McCarthy

Author of "A History of Our Own Times," "The Four Georges," etc.

CHAPTER XIX.—THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR

den and Bright were, of course, leaders I have already mentioned the fact that North. Harriet Martineau, probably the

of public opinion on the side of the the great Civil War in America had broken out. The war created a curious cleverest woman who ever wrote for an difference of opinion in this country. of the North day after day. Lord Palmer,

English newspaper, advocated the cause What is commonly called “society” was almost altogether in favor of the South. ston, in his heedless, unthinking way, had The English democracy and working Bull Run which were offensive to the minds

talked some jocularities after the battle of classes generally were entirely in favor of of all Americans who supported the cause the North. Some of our educated men were divided in opinion. Carlyle, who of the North Lord Palmerston, however, perhaps could hardly be called, on that although Prime Minister, was always refavor of the South, or, rather, was rabidly from his joke, no matter whom the joke question, an educated man, was rabidly in garded as an irresponsible sort of person,

who could not be expected to refrain opposed to the North. He knew nothing whatever about the matter, and used to might offend. But a profound sensation boast that he never read American news

was created in the Northern States when papers. On the other hand, John Stuart

Mr. Gladstone unluckily committed himMill, probably the most purely intellectual

self to a sort of declaration in favor of the Englishman of his time, was heart and

South. Speaking at a public meeting at soul with the cause of the North. Cob- Newcastle-on-Tyne on the 7th of October,

1862, he gave it as his conviction that "Copyright, 1897, by The Outlook Company.

Jefferson Davis had made an army, had

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WOODCHOPPING AT HAWARDEN

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