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is altogether likely that not a few readers, States take fourth rank instead of tenth, in examining the upper group of ther- while Presbyterians, South, move up from mometers, will be surprised at the relative eleventh place to fifth. The Methodist, positions occupied by the denominations Soutb, and Baptist, South only, hold the making the largest five contributions. same place in each comparison.

The greater eight of these fourteen Another interesting relation shown by denominations, having each over a half- the property thermometers is discovered million members, are: (1) Methodist, by considering that each denomination North, 2,240.354 ;1 (2) Baptist, South, has provided itself with a permanent 1,280,066; (3) Methodist, South, 1,209, church property, on which it pays an an976; (4) Baptist, North, 800,025; (5) nual dividend to the cause of mi.sions, Presbyterian, North, 788,224; (6) Dis- The Congregationalists, for example, lead ciples of Christ, 641,051 ; (7) Protestant with a misionary dividend of nearly seven Episcopal, 532,054; (8) Congregational, per cent. (6,100 per cent.) on their church 512,77i. The smallest of the fourteen property, while the Disciples of Christ denominations is the Free Baptist, 87,898, provide a dividend of only a little over which takes its corresponding place at the one per cent. foot of the list.

Another interesting feature incident to Proportionate Denominational Contribu- this exhibit is that the two thermometion. The lower group of thermometers ters for each denomination show how ranks the fourteen denominations accord- nearly each church member represents ing to their contribution as measured by $100 of church property. In the Presby. the valuation of church property. It is terian Chur:h, North, each member reprefair to presume that each denomination

sents almost exactly one hundred dollars has provided itself with church property of church property, there being a differapproximately proportioned to its wealth.

ence of only nine cents in the respective Now, if the mission spirit which seeks to contributions, as is readily seen by lookaid others were equally adjusted in all ing at their two thermometers. In the denominations to the self-spirit which Protestant Episcopal Church each memprovides the church home, then each ber represents $152 of church property, $100 of church property would represent over ten times as much as in the case of just as large a mission contribution in one the Baptists, Soutb. denomination as in another, and there These comparisons ought to furnish would be no such thing as rank.

encouragement. Coupled with the “per The property.contribution thermometers capita"and “per wealth" studies, they show, however, a considerable variation should give strong foundation for a steady in this respect, and at the same time faith in the attitude of the people of the prove how easily and widely mere totals United States toward missionary work. may mislead. For example, the Cum- As a crystallization of the results of the berland Presbyterians, who rank ninth in investigation of growth, the following total contributions, take second place comparison will be helpful. From 1860 when measured by the “as ye are pros to 1890 valuations increased : pered” test. The Reformed in the United

Farms and farm property.....

100 per cent. Church property..

296 ! These figures are from the report of the Eleventh Census (1890), because they best represent the average membership for the ten years (1885-1894) included in Manufactured products. the period presented in the exhibit.

Missionary contributions... 460 2 It would have been interesting to have included the Salvation Army, but its official record of contributions dates back to 1891 only, beginning at $353,859, while its The young men and women of today are average during the panic years, i893-1896, is $590,571, although the census gives its 1890 membership at less

to fill out the record of a new generation than nine thousand. The United Brethren in Christ

of missionary contributors. How will it would from its quadrennial reports seem to be entitled to a record of about $100,000 as its average annual con compare with the preceding one? It is an As examples of missionary contributions made to

earnest task. Will they be equal to it? organizations having no church membership, the Three years of the new record are practireport of the American S. S. Union shows an annual average of $102,347; the American Tract Society, 887,795; cally finished, for most mission societies and the Baptist City Mission of New York, $39,367. close their fiscal year in the spring of Incomplete reports seem to indicate a credit to the American Bible Society of a yearly average of about early summer. Seventeen years remain. $200,000, and the International Missionary Alliance of about $75,00C, during the ten years under review.

“ What shall the harvest be?"

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By Hamilton W. Mabie T has often been said that the essay, and changes of form, one of the most as a form of literary art, is as ex- subtle, obscure, and hidden, because it is tinct as the mastodon or the dodo; one of the most spiritual. It is idle,

appearbut the essay continues to be written and therefore, to dogmatize about the read in the face of these pessimistic ance and disappearance of the different deductions. The attempt to deal with forms which literary expression wears from literature from day to day, from what may time to time. be called the journalistic point of view, The essay, which has been decently is foredoomed to failure by the very con and sorrowsully interred from time to time ditions of the art upon which judgment is by critics of more or less distinction, is so jauntily and confiden!ly pronounced not only still written, but shows an unLiterature, like de

usual vitality at this

particular time. It mocracy, civilization, and religion, is an

has a good pedigree, activity of the hu

for its practitioners

have been men of man spirit too vast, too obscure, and too

the highest intellectual

distinctionprofoundly vital to disclose at any mo

men who have had ment, or to any per

the feeling for form son, the full sweep of

very keenly develop its stream or the deep

ed, but who have had

also thought, obsercurrents which flow through it. If a

vation, humor, and period of great poetic

wit of a highly inactivity is followed

dividual quality. Disby a period of com

tinction has been, in parative barienness,

some form, the note the cry at once goes

of the great essayforth that poetry

ists. Such names as has had its day and

Montaigne, Bacon, henceforth prose is

Sir Thomas Browne, to be the universal

Addison, Steele, speech. This quick

Goldsmith, Carlyle, and easy judgment

Coleridge, Hazlitt, is as irrational as the

Lamb, Arnold, Emeropinion of the un

son, Lowell, suggest taught observer who

gifts of many differshould mistake the

ent kinds, but of a annual subsidence of the Mississippi for very distinct quality. The American a permanent diminution of its volume. mind tas, perhaps, natural affinities with

In journalism events are registered and the essay; it is keen in observation, it judged from day to day; in literature we loves humor, it rejoices in quaint or deliare fortunate if once in half a century cate characterization, and it is not averse a movement can be intelligently traced

to a vein of philosophy. The essay is, and finally interpreted. The shallow as a rule, comparatively short, not for movements in human affairs are easily lack of material, but for effectiveness; it understood ; the deep movements

seeks clearness, definiteness, or charm by comprehensible only when they have left rejection as well as by inclusion. At its their impress on thought, art, and institu- best it is not only fu'l of human interest, tions. Of these deeper activities the art

but it is also full of thought. Carlyle's of writing real books is, in its impulses essays have had as deep an influence as




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any body of philosophy which our time material activities, who has a definite
has produced; because there was a phi- scale of spiritual values, and estimates the
losophy behind them. Emerson sets the importance of products, results, achieve-
imagination at work as successfully in ments, and conditions with rare insight and
twenty pages as if he had filled a volume. soundness of judgment. In the confusion
The brevity of the essay is not a sign of of social ideals which prevails in a new
weakness or weariness; it is the result of society, Mr. Warner's sanity of vision is
a concentration which often packs ma of inestimable importance. He knows the
terial enough to make an octavo into the best, and he is incapable of that kind of
compass of a brief paper. Bacon's little lying to which literary men are exposed
chapters contain more of the results of

in a democracy; he cannot commend a
profound observation and thought than thing because it is popular. He cares
most of those great quartos of which his too much for the higher life of the coun.
time produced not a few.

try to be otherwise than absolutely loyal
In England the essay is written to-day to the highest standards of morals, man-
with skill if not with genius; in France ners, education, and political habit. A
it shows that perfection of form which glance at the titles of the essays in his
the French have attained as the result of latest volumel shows how deeply con
infinite painstaking; in this country it dis- cerned he is to keep life in touch with lit-
closes a strong, wholesome influence, the erature by developing the sincerity, sim-
vitality of a genuine interest, and notable plicity, integrity, and deep culture of the
variety of skill, although with a good deal instincts and imagination which go to the
of inequality in the matter of workman- making of literature. He has the spirit,
ship. It is noticeable that American es the quiet temper, the easy, flexible style
says, as a rule, show a very close relation of a man who has known the best in life
with the vital conditions of the country; and art. He is a thoughtful observer, he
our men of letters are keenly alive not so has a delightful quality of humor, and his
much to material as to spiritual conditions style is notably free from eccentricity and
on the new continent. They strike a high excess; it is sound, well balanced, and in-
note; they stand for the highest civiliza- teresting.

Colonel Higginson is a writer of differ-
Mr. Warner is, in this sense, one of the ent quality and temper. The charming
civilizing forces of the time ; a man who
is not confused by the noise of purely Dudley Warner." Harper & Brothers, New York. $1.50.

· The Relation of Literature to Life, By Charles


chapters of autobiography which he has son of their lucidity, their simplicity, their contributed to the “ Atlantic Monthly" admirable and charming style. In “Book bring into clear light the ardent reforming and Heart" Colonel Higginson shows the spirit of his youth, and the literary influ same trained skill, the same moral sagacences which found him receptive but by ity, the same refined touch. No literary no means imitative. The enthusiast who man of his time has more loyally kept threw himself with such impetuosity into faith with his art and his readers. the fierce moral movement of his time was Mr. Howells has disclosed of late years by no means lacking in the ability to judge a steadily deepening experience, a growfor himself. Colonel Higginson had from ing power of sympathy with his kind, a the beginning a vein of chivalry, but he deep and passionate yearning for those has never followed any standard blindly. happier and holier vital conditions towards There is in his

which society work a touch of

moves with such criticism which

tragic slowness. is always frank

Those who have and sometimes

read his recent sharp. He is

verse have felt born dis

the anguish of senter, but his

spirit which dissent is tem

sometimes oppered by ripe

presses him in culture. He is

the presence of keen, incisive,

the sorrows and independent;

burdens of he has been, all

men, and it is his life, a free

no secret that lance; but his

those who know

him see in him weapons are of the finest qual

a spirit of comity, and they

passion and handled

brotherliness of with the skill

which it is not of a thoroughly

easy to speak trained

in public ways. Colonel Hig

And yet the ginson is an ag.

lightness of gressive Ameri

touch, the can when the

quickness of national spirit

observation, the or tradition is

charming hutouched in any

mor, which long THOMAS WENTWORTH HIGGINSON way; but he

ago won Mr. does not make the mistake of assuming Howells his audience, still remain. As that to be patriotic one must be blind. an essayist he is interested chiefly in On the contrary, he has been one of people and their surroundings. Abstract the most incisive critics of national man- subjects have no charm for him ; it is ners and habits which this generation of “Impressions and Experiences " 2 that has koown; a man who identifies Amer- he writes. The streets, the parks, the icanism with independence of character, hotel, the East Side, the police courts, simplicity of life, and the courage of ideal command his attention because they ism, and who hates sham, pretension, are so rich in human interest. How vulgarity, snobbishness, and money-get- much he sees in places which seem ting with a very wholesome and effective so barren to the untrained eye! How hatred. When the “ Atlantic Essays” ap i Book and Heart. By Thomas Wentworth Higginpeared years ago they affected many young son., Harper & Brothers, New York. $1.50.

Impressions and Experiences. By W. D. Howells. men of literary tastes very deeply by rea Harper & Brothers, New York. $1.50.




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