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Civil Service Law and bring it into dis- friends or enemies. Outside of New repute.” Although this must be regarded York the most important act of State legas obiter dicta, we hope that the Governor islation last week was the passage of the will take the hint in considering the Civil Iowa bill permitting the manufacture of Service Law to which we referred last liquor within that commonwealth, An week, and which has passed the Legisla: attempt was made to amend the bill so as ture and is now before him. Our object to facilitate the establishment of saloons in this paragraph is simply to state the in small towns in no-license counties, but decision of the Court of Appeals, not was not successful at any important point. to re-argue the case; it is, however, legit- Even without such amendments the liquor imate to say that the general interpreta- bill had few votes to spare. tion of the word “practicable” furnished by this decision seems to us rational and just.

A law signed by Governor Morton early in 1895, which excited active interest and

co-operation, as well as opposition, proThe New York Legislature, which vided for the establishment of high adjourned last week, passed one anti- schools in the city of New York. As monopoly measure which would have soon as the bill became a law and a been considered revolutionary five years Board of Superintendents was appointed ago, and rejected another anti-monopoly under the law, a committee of the Board measure which even longer ago would of Education and of this Board of Superhave been recognized as conservative by intendents was appointed to adopt a nearly all men opposed to class privileges. course of study for the new high schools. The anti-monopoly measure accepted was As a result of investigation in this country the progressive inheritance tax bill, cham- and abroad, and after consultation with pioned by Comptroller Roberts. This the highest educational authorities, this measure places taxes ranging from 1 per special committee has now made public cent. on personal estates of $10,000 to its course of study for the high schools. 10 per cent. on personal estates of $4,- It is said that nothing of like character 000,000, with 4 or 5 per centadded in exists on this side of the Atlantic, and case the inheritance passes to heirs ou: that the idea has been borrowed from the side the immediate family of the dece- schools of Germany. The committee in dent. The anti-monopoly measure re. its report says that this higher commerjected was that reducing the price of cial course is “designed to give the stugas in New York City to $1 per 1,000 dent a very thorough business education, cubic feet-or to 33 per cent. more so extended as to give instruction in the than has for several years been found higher commercial operations, and to profitable in Cleveland, Ohio. This bill, form the foundation of a liberal educahowever, was defeated only by means tion at the same time.” The course proof a substitute reducing the price of gas vided for covers four years. Bookkeeping, to $1.20 this year, and making a similar English, and German are studied through five-cent reduction each succeeding year the four years. Other studies are : stenoguntil the $1 rate is established. The raphy, business forms and customs, bankdifference between the two bills, based ing, finance, and economics, commercial upon the present consumption of gas, was geography and commercial arithmetic, said to mean $8,000,000 to the gas com. Latin and American literature, civics and panies and to the public. Among the modern and ancient history, constitutional other acts of the Legislature, the impor- and commercial history, two branches of tant ones were the passage of the Greater the natural sciences. Students will be New York Charter Bill, the amendment prepared for the classical and scientific of the Raines Law so as to make it an courses of the city colleges. effective anti-saloon measure, and the passage of Governor Black's civil service law taking the “starch” out of the re The committee state frankly that the form system.

The anti-trust bills passed success of this course of study depends are not regarded as important by either on the kind of men they can find to put

at the head of the high schools, and! School Committee of the Board of Educathe courses of study presented will doubt tibn has invited those who advocate the less be somewhat changed on consulta- appointment of women to this position to tion with these principals, as it is the send the names of their candidates, with intention and acknowledged principle laid their credentials, to the committee. Those, down by the entire Board of Education of who advocate ihe appointment of women New York to-day, and provided for in the have, too many of then, taken the posichapter on education of the Greater New tion that it would be absurd to put a man York Charter, that the principals shall in the place ; that the girls in a high be brought into closer relations with the school need the guidance of a woman; management of their own schools, and that only a woman could understand them have a voice in the selection of teachers and their needs. They would not, howand in the decision of all affairs relating ever, debar men from positions as teachto their own schools. New York is to be ers in the high school

The opponents congratulated on the progress she has to the appointment of a woman principal made and the promise that lies in the assume and declare that a woman would future. The next ten years will see the never succeed as the principal of a high public schools of New York taking rank school. Neither of these positions is with the best in the country. Bills have tenable. While women make successʼul been reported favorably from the Assem- presidents of women's colleges and prinbly's City Committee, which authorize cipals of high schools, it is absurd to New York City to raise $12,500,000 for take the position that a woman cannot school buildings and sites. One bill succeed as the principal of a high school provides for bonds to the amount of in New York. With men standing at the $10,000,000 for the common schools. head of women's colleges and successfully Another bill authorizes $2,500,000 for conducting them, and equally successful high-school buildings. There is every as principals of girls' high schools, it is indication th st these bills will pass. That equally absurd to make the declaration that New York must make ample provision a man is unfit for the principalship of a for the future is proved by the increase in girls' high school. Character, ability, exattendance since 1891. In 1891 the chil- perience, equipment, not sex, must de. dren attending the public schools in New cide the question. York numbered 137,849. That was an increase of 1.25 per cent. over the preceding year. In 1896 the average attendance For several months there have been was 175,000, an increase of 7.14 per cent. disagreements between the New York over the attendance of 1895. It is esti- State Government, the Board of Managers mated that 1897 will find the school of the Society for the Reformation of average attendance at 188,000, an in- Juvenile Delinquents in the City of New crease of 7.42 per cent. over 1896. This York, and the Board of Health of the city. rapid increase justifies the seemingly The Society which controls the House of large expenditures which the Board of Refuge was organized in 1824 by private Education demands.

citizens, and supported by gifts and endowments. In 1853 the present Refuge

was built, with the co-operation of the As soon as the Board of Education in city. The State undertook to maintain New York City took final action in re the institution, but it has been under the gard to the establishment of high schools, control of a self-perpetuating Board of by deciding to open the old East Twelfth Managers; and the Society and the State Street School as a Girls' High School, the have been for a long time at loggerheads, question of the appointment of a princi- with the most disastrous results. Accordpal became prominent. The impression ing to the report of the Board of Health, went forth that the Board of Education the plumbing and other sanitary arrangewould discriminate against women, and ments for the building are just about what consider only men as candidates for the they were forty-five years ago. The manposition of principal of the school. This agers have long been asking for approis not true. The Chairman of the High priations from the State Government to

improve the sanitary conditions of the to carry out its ideal of university study House of Refuge; but the State Comp- and life. Prominent among these needs troller has opposed this expenditure un President Dwight places the further enless the property is given into the pos- dowment of the library, which has already session and control of the State. The a fund of $300,000 (the Sloane bequest) Medical Superintendent of the House of toward this end; the founding of a school Refuge has now resigned, and his resig- of architecture in connection with the Art nation has been foliowed by that of the School, to be modeled on the plan of the Ophthalmologist. These two gentlemen École des Beaux Arts, and to occupy a constituted the entire medical staff of an building, with equipment, to cost $250,000; institution containing 820 boys and girls a new Medical School building; a new between the ages of twelve and eighteen building for the department of physiology years, who have been committed by the and morphology in the Sheffield Scientific magistrates in the first, second, and third School, which, by the way, is this year to judicial districts of the State. These em celebrate the close of its fiftieth year of brace New York and fifteen other coun- constantly growing usefulness; the estabties. More than three-fourths of those lishing of libraries for the departments; committed to the House of Refuge are the extension of graduate fellowships and from New York and Brooklyn. The scholarships to fully sustain the recent reresignation of the two medical officers markable growth in this department of precipitated the action of the Board of the University-and in this connection Health, and the Board immediately con President Dwight recommends that some demned the House of Refuge, and issued of these scholarships should be purely an order prohibiting it from receiving any honorary (that is, without money income persons as inmates until further orders attached), in order to recognize the work from the Board of Health. The whole of graduate students who do not need evil grows out of the attempted partner- financial aid. An interesting part of the ship between a private corporation and report deals with the inevitable destructhe State. The partnership should be tion in the near future of the “Old Brick dissolved and the State should be given Row," or rather the three buildings of it control of the institution, or the private which still remain. The proposed Quadbeneficence should assume the cost as rangle has been planned for a quarter of well as the care of it. Any scheme by a century, has now been partly carried which the State pays the bills, and a out, and, of course, the sentimental interprivate, irresponsible body spends the est attached to the old buildings cannot money, is sure to land in difficulty, sooner be allowed to stand in the way of comor later,

pleting the work. "Really, South Middle College is the only one to which historic

interest attaches, and that will doubtless The annual report of President Dwight, be left for at least a few years. of Yale University, records great advances in both material and intellectual riches, and points out with equal force the The tenth annual report of the Commany present opportunities for further missioner of Labor Statistics in North advancement. During the last ten years Carolina has just been published. There fifteen new buildings have been erected, are 200 cotton, woolen, knitting, and five made over, and one bought, and in hosiery mills in the State, with slightly the same time over $4,000,000 have been over 1,000,000 spindles. There are received in the way of donations. But 25,000 operatives, 6,000 of whom are chilPresident Dwight well says that "the law dren and 18,000 adults—10,500 women of all growing life is that it continu. and 7,500 men. Over one-half of the ally asks for more. When the asking children employed are under sixteen ceases, the life begins to decline and de- years of age. The wages differ in different cay.” Yale's increase in the number localities. The average pay for skilled of students has fully kept pace with labor is $1 per day. Women's wages its increase in buildings and funds, and range from 60 cents to $1; unskilled men, its immediate needs are many, if it is 50 cents to $1, the average being 66 cents.

The wages

of unskilled women are as low as The presence of the President and Vice40 cents, the average being 47 cents. The President of the United States, the Cabiaverage for children is 32 cents. In two net, the Justices of the Supreme Court, counties ten to eleven hours constitute a a large representation from the two day's work; in thirteen counties, eleven and branches of Congress, the Ambassadors a half hours; in ten counties, twelve hours. and Ministers of many foreign countries, The average working time in these mills the Governors of many of the States, and is eleven hours per day. Most of the other distinguished guests, adds dignity mills run fifteen hours a day, but they to a spectacle in itself impressive, and in pay for extra time. It is claimed by the its meaning significant and inspiring of mill-owners that it is a rare thing to see patriotism. New York City has just children under twelve years of age in pride in its fulfillment of the pledge made any of the mills.

by it to erect a fit and stately monument to the National hero who chose that city

for his last resting-place; it has pride A notable good work is being per

also in the beautiful spot where the formed by the Legal Aid Society of this mausoleum stands, and in the noble river city. There are always those too poor to

which flows beside it; it has pride in the pay the necessary expense of having their

vast plans for improving and beautifying wrongs righted. From those, however, who

the city now being carried out in the are able, the stigma of being applicants region above the Harlem ; it may reasonfor charity is removed by the Society's istration for the past year or two as

ably have pride in its municipal adminrequirement of a small fee. Last year, compared with the maladministration of through the Society's endeavors, more than $70,000 was paid by persons wrong with the present administration of nut a

previous years, and, indeed, as compared fully retaining that amount to nearly few of the great American cities. Let us 7,500 persons rightfully entitled to it. Another signal service last year was

hope that this local pride, which New the initiating of proceedings for destroy

York has often been accused of not posing the "bucket-shops" and "policy- sessing at all, but which is brought into shops"-gambling establishments which

view by such public occasions as the vitiate the moral atmosphere wherever present, may grow in intensity until the they exist. The Society's attorneys have Greater New York may be materially and not a little to do with educating ignorant imitated at home and abroad.

in spirit and purpose an example to be applicants as to the prevailing ideas of right and wrong. It often happens that persons deem themselves wronged who are either not wronged at all, or have

Direct Primaries themselves transgressed the bounds of propriety. The Society desires to in

The conviction that the reform of the crease its work by having a representa primaries constitutes the next step toward tive in each police court--practically in

the overthrow of political corruption and every court at all times. The greatest ring rule is taking root in all parts of work of the Society is really an indirect the country. In different States entirely

are gathering one; it spreads abroad the feeling that independent movements the poor can get justice done. This feel strength, all directed to the same end, that ing is now a strong one, since the Society choose their candidates, instead of dele

of enabling all the voters in each party to has existed for over twenty years, and during that time has taken care of over

gating the choice to the men in control of party machinery and nominating conventions. This democratic system—the “Crawford County System”—has already

been voluntarily established by one party The ceremonies attending the comple- organization or another in many rural tion of General Grant's Tomb on River- counties in Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, side Drive, in New York City, are in California, and fully half of the Southprogress as this paper goes to press.

ern States. The present movement is

80,000 cases.

to require its adoption in the cities, where opposition might be divided among many, the evils of the boss system have become and the triumph of the machine be asintolerable.

sured. Against this danger the South CaroAt the beginning of the legislative lina system endeavors to provide by requirseascn we noticed that Governor Pingree ing a new election in some cases where no had urged this reform in. Michigan; three candidate receives a majority of the whole weeks ago we noticed that Wisconsin vote, though, as a rule, the choice of the reformers were urging it before the Legis- plurality is the choice of the majority. lature of their State ; and two weeks ago Direct primaries will undoubtedly leave we learned from Minnesota that a similar some power in the hands of the machine, measure had received most encouraging just as the Australian ballot system left support in one branch of the Minnesota

some power in the hands of the voteLegislature. The Minnesota bill, which buyers; but the restriction of power will had been drawn by Judge Hicks, of Min be as great in the one case as in the other. neapolis, without conference with the Wis. To force the machine to submit its choice consin reformers, follows substantially to the approval of the voters of the party the same lines. It very sensibly grafts the would insure better nominations, even reform of the primaries upon the Austra where the machine triumphs. The fact lian ballot system.

Voters at the prima- that the opponents of the Hicks Bill ries are to receive official ballots upon were unwilling to avow their friendship which the names of all candidates for each for machine-made nominations was evioffice are to be printed. In this way the dence of the strength of popular feeling candidates proposed by a group of inde- against the evils of the present system. pendents will be presented to all the voters In Minnesota Judge Hicks secured for in the same way as the candidates named his measure the powerful support of the by the machine. The power of the voters St. Paul “ Pioneer Press," whose conis not restricted to the election of dele- tinued advocacy of its fundamental pringates to a nominating convention, but the ciple promises its adoption in the near voters are themselves to have the respon- future. The position of the “Pioneer sibility and privilege of naming the can Press” is briefly as follows: didates for every office. Around these

That the revolt against the present system is primary elections are to be thrown all the daily gaining force and power there can be no safeguards that now surround the general doubt, nor can there be any doubt that it is only election.

a question of a few years at the most before it is A primary election thus conducted

swept out of existence. The tendency is toward would be worth attending, and citizens replacing the power in the hands of the people,

and either this measure or another which also with any sense of public duty would no relegates the convention of delegates to the lummore think of refusing to exercise their ber-room will have to be enacted. The present privilege of choosing candidates than they devoted himself for hours to a study of the situa

system is intolerable. No man, unless he has now think of refusing to exercise the often

tion, has the faintest conception of what he is less important privilege of choosing be- voting for as primaries are now conducted. He tween candidates. It is needless to say,

may vote for a set of delegates to secure the electhis measure to transfer the power of the

tion of a particular man to a particular office, but

even then it by no means follows that those delepoliticians to the rank and file of the voters

gates will or ever intended to vote for his candiwas rejected upon its first presentat.on, date. As for the rest of the ticket, it is deterbut Judge Hicks was able to rally 36 out mined by mere log.rolling combinations. Except of 98 members of the Minnesota House to

in times of extraordinary public commotion, when

the people under stress of some flagrant outrage its support. More encouraging still were

rise in a body, their influence is not worth a picathe objections urged by the majority. yune. The three or four men in each precinct Like the Australian ballot system, the who make their living by politics, or like the exmeasure was opposed on the ground that

citement of the game, practically dictate who it was " impracticable" and "expensive." Knowing that it is useless, and often worse than

shall or who shall not be voted for in that precinct. It was also opposed on the ground that useless, to attend primaries, not one man in ten it would not deprive the politicians of

who cannot give days to “politics The machine, it was said

them. But under the system proposed every with some force, would unite its vote

voter could express his will as to the candidates

for every office. If it did nothing else, it would upon one candidate, while the vote of the quicken interest in the primaries, for the remedy

goes near

their power.

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