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Copyright, 1897, by The Outlook Company,
Entered as second-class matter in the New York Post-Office.


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The War in the East..
The New Greek Cabinet.
What will the powers Do ?
In South Africa
The Austrian Reichsrath
Cuba and Spain..
The British Budget.
The Export of Gold
Trade with South America.
Japan and Hawall
The Diagley Tariff Bill.
The Postal Congress
The Torrens Land Law.
Street Rallway Agitation
Delaware's Constitution...
Forest Preserves
Tennessee's Centennial

Women at English Universities.

French Colonial Matters .........


Harnack's New Book..

An Overlooked Service

The Unemployed

The Will to Belleve..

Trinity and Its Work

The Spectator....


American Impressions.-II...

By lan Maclaren

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Registered Trade Mark

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14 West 23d Street, N. Y.

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Published Every Saturday
Vol. 56
May 8, 1897

No. 2
COURING the past week interest in abandoned, the bravery of the men every

Greece has centered in Athens where neutralized; and it is not surprising rather than on the frontier. that, in spite of superb courage, the re

Military movements have not treat from Larissa became a disgraceful been very clear at this distance, nor so panic. The Greek fleet, which was the far have they materially changed the situ most effective weapon in their hands, has tion reported last week. The Greek army done nothing, apparently, save to bombard is still in force at Pharsalos, where a bat a few unimportant towns and destroy tle is hourly expected. The Turks have stores. In Epirus, where the Greeks not yet taken Volo, where they would have have been steadily successful from the turned the Greek position on the east; start, no real advantage appears to have nor bave they taken Velestino, which been gained. lies between their forces and Volo. There has been a sharp fight at the latter place, and the Greeks are claim Under these circumstances it is not ing a victory for General Smolenski, who surprising that the Greeks feel as if they was in command; but the impression pre- had been handed over to their enemies vails that the importance of the fight was by their own Government, no less than very much exaggerated. What has hap- by the allied Powers. The feeling of pened during the week has been an aston- antagonism to the dynasty has been deep ishing disclosure of the weakness of the and bitter, and its future is still

very far Greek generalship. The troops have from being secure.

The feeling is genfought with desperate courage, but their eral that court favor, rather than comfighting has gone for naught because of petency, has determined the organization the military incompetency of their leaders. of the Greek staff, and that the attempts The popular anger at Athens, however of the King and the Crown Prince to disindiscreet in expression, is amply justified charge military functions have been in by the story of the last fortnight. There the last degree disastrous. Yielding to is very little doubt that two weeks ago the pressure of public opinion, which the Greeks were not only holding their was rapidly ripening for revolution, King own against a much superior force, but George, on Thursday of last week, diswere actually gaining ground. They were missed the Premier, M. Delyannis, and apparently secure on the Macedonian side called to that position M. Ralli, the of the mountains, and in a position to strike leader of the Opposition. The new Preeffectively at Elassona, when the order mier is in the prime of life; is a graduate of came for retreat, and they were compelled, the University of Athens; was a student in a fury of anger, to give up the eastern at Paris, and has been a leader of the frontier to the Turks. Under Smolenski Bar, and a member of Parliament for they were not only holding the Reveni pass, more than twenty years. He was Minbut they were actually driving the Turks ister of Justice in 1880, and Minister of back when the Crown Prince ordered the Interior in 1892. He is noted for them, first of all, to halt, and then to re decision, courage, frankness, and he is treat and abandon that whole line of fron- believed to be a republican at heart. He tier. One blunder followed another in has never been a favorite at court, and swift succession ; advantage after advan- his appointment in this critical moment tage was cast aside, position after position indicates the extremity into which the

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King was driven. The policy of the having secured all the money that she
new Ministry, as announced by M. Ralli, needed in the way of a loan; the three
will be to make the best of the situation; Emperors have banded themselves to-
that is to say, to reorganize the army as gether for the repression of the liberal
rapidly as possible, and to continue the movement wherever it shows itself. Under
struggle, if such a course is feasible; if this scheme Crete must belong to Turkey,
not, to secure peace on the most honor- but with a certain amount of local autonomy.
able terms. Those terms involve the The sovereigns, however, graciously agree
autonomy of Crete, and the rectification that the Turks shall not take the advan-
of the frontier in accordance with the tage of their successes to further diminish
pledges of the Great Powers. As the Greek territory. It is in South Africa, how-
Powers have many times declared for ever, that the Unholy Alliance is to disclose
both these proposals, it is difficult to see its policy in the most direct fashion. Eng-
how they can be set aside when the land is to be thwarted at every turn, and
question of the adjustment of differences South Africa is to be divided up to meet the
between Turkey and Greece is finally wishes of the amiable Emperor William,

to whom is also credited the scheme of
announcing himself as the successor to

the English throne when the Queen passes
Meanwhile the growing divergence be- away.
tween the Powers becomes more distinct.
France is reported to have declared very
plainly that Turkey will not be permitted This announcement may be taken for
to despoil the Greeks; English sentiment what it is worth. It is very clear, how-
is distinctly in that direction. On the ever, that the English Government is pre-
other hand, the Emperor of Germany has paring for possible contingencies in South
personally congratulated the Sultan on Africa. When the matter of an extra
the success of the Turkish arms—a success military credit of one million dollars to be
to which Germany has made, it ought to used in South Africa came upin the House
be said, no small contribution through the of Commons, and was made the basis of a
presence in the Turkish army of a num- charge by Sir William Harcourt that the
ber of German officers, some of whom Government was trying to get up a war in
are still on the active list of the German that section, Mr. Chamberlain, usually so
army. The newspapers are full of re cool and shrewd, lost his temper, and con-
ports of the coming intervention of the vinced the Liberals that, while the inten-
Great Powers and of the conditions which tion imputed to him was probably too
they will impose upon the contestants, but large, it was not wholly wide of the mark.
it is to be noted that the signs of discord The presence of a British squadron off
are much more numerous than those of Delagoa Bay is not explained by the state-
concord. The Eastern situation is much

ment of the Admiralty that it is there for more likely to be settled in accordance purely routine work. People have been with the determination of Russia and saying for some time that a battle-ship, six Germany than with the sentiment or the cruisers of the latest build, and a gunboat wishes of France and England. An inter are not needed for ordinary purposes on view with the Austrian Ambassador at the South African coast. There is eviBerlin has been widely published, and dence of some kind of understanding has made a profound impression. The between England and Portugal with rewords put in the Minister's mouth are so gard to Delagoa Bay. No Portuguese unusually frank and bold that their very Ministry could for a moment, in the presaudacity makes them credible. If these ent state of public opinion, dispose of statements are to be believed, the three Delagoa Bay to England, but such a MinEmperors have made what ought to be istry might for a proper consideration called an Unholy Alliance. Germany and quietly agree to allow the English to use Austria have quietly dropped Italy, after Delagoa Bay as if it were their own. That using her for their own purposes and per- is apparently what is being done. Whatsuading her to load herself with debt; ever the uncertainties of the immediate Russia has turned against France, after future may be, it is clear that England

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means to maintain her supremacy in South sode was that announced by the press in Africa at all costs, and that neither the bold head-lines as “A Great Victory," antagonism of the Boers nor the alliance “Important Battle.” It consisted in the of the Emperors will divert her from that explosion of some dynamite bombs conpolicy.

cealed under a road over which Span'sh

troops were marching. Some of the troops The division of the new Austrian Reichs were killed by the explosion-accounts rath into small groups was commented vary in fixing the number from ten to upon in these columns when the results two hundred; the Spanish troops reof the recent elections were announced, treated homeward, and the Cubans in the but the extreme to which this subdivision hill-tops fired a fusillade of victory. An has run is brought out by a correspond- interesting account of an interview with ent of the London “Times,” who says Señor Cánovas has been written for that the new Reichsrath contains at least “Harper's Weekly” by Mr. Poultney twenty-five separate political groups. Bigelow. The Prime Minister, referring There are 62 members of the Young to the proposed reforms, said: “The Czech group, 59 of the Polish group, 50

Government has given its pledge, and German progressists, while more than

Cuba will have everything which a repub250 are divided among three different lic could desire short of separation from groups of Socialists and six different Na- the mother country. She has now liberty tionalist groups, brought together along of the press and liberty of speech as comlines of race or speech. Such a subdi. plete as we have in Spain; and, as you vision as this may be said to mark the dis- know, here in Spain the papers have a integration of political parties, since the license as unbridled as in America. What principal division in most cases is in no

we must work for is peace, in order that sense political, but racial, lingual, or local. we may develop commercial relations." Groups are organized, as a rule, around

Señor Cánovas commented courteously some small local interest or about some

but with some natural wonder, on the fact distinctively racial feeling or object. Such that “so great a nation as the United a subdivision of parties as this represents States, with such vast political and coman extreme subdivision of the people be- mercial interests with Spain and Spanishhind their representatives, and explains American countries, should send to reprethe extraordinary difficulties of governing sent these interests a gentleman with whom the complex Austro-Hungarian Empire. it was out of his power to converse intelliT'here seems to be very little hope that gibly.” Mr. Hannis Taylor, the new Minisany satisfactory financial arrangement can

ter to Spain, it seems, speaks neither Spanbe made between the two empires, and the ish nor French. Mr. Bigelow states that only solution held out is the possible ac

even the present Secretary of the Legation tion of the Emperor through the instru. at Madrid cannot speak Spanish. The mentality of a decree.

suggestion has been made-and we think it a good one—that retired army and navy

officers who are still in robust health, as No great importance attaches to the many of them are, would make excellent news that the Queen Regent of Spain has material for foreign appointments because signed a decree looking to applying to of their special training and education. Cuba the scheme of reform announced about three months ago, and then outlined in The Outlook. The insurgents There is a difference this year between absolutely refuse to even consider a peace British thriftiness and American spendbased on these reforms, demanding inde- thriftiness. This was clearly brought out pendence ; and, while military law rules in last week in the submission by Sir Michael Cuba, the application of the reforms to Hicks-Beach (the Chancellor of the Exthe parts of the island held by Spain can, chequer) of the British Budget. At Washin the nature of things, be little more than ington we are treated to various guesses a farce. Meanwhile the war goes on of needed appropriations; these are revised with no positive results and very little and generally enlarged, but without any actual fighting of battles. A typical epi- exact knowledge of what the coming

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