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year's revenue is to be.

Hence one cause world in order to escape the higher rates of deficits. For the four years ending of the proposed new tariff. Again, there July 1 they will have mounted to two is now a special demand for gold abroad. hundred million dollars. The radical dif- The countries making this demand are ference between the British method and the three now placing themselves on a our own is that, while Parliament often gold basis, Austria, Russia, and Japan. refuses some of the requested appropria- An event of quite as much political as tions, it never increases them. Accord- financial significance is the conclusion by ing to the last Budget, British finances the Russian Government of a $50,000,000 are in a notably favorable condition. 4 per cent. loan exclusively in Germany. During the past year receipts were $12,- Another cause for the outflow is, of 000,000 more than expenditures, and course, in the unsettling caused by the there has been a reduction in the national Græco-Turkish war. The gold exports debt of $37,000,000. The surplus this have occasioned no alarm; we have year will not be devoted to the remission $155,000,000 of the metal in the United of taxation, but to an increase of the States Treasury, and $87,000,000 in the naval estimates of the Imperial garrison banks, besides our own product. There in South Africa, to education in Ire- is usually a gold outflow at this season ; land and Scotland, and to postal reform. the present movement has begun slightly This last includes the cost of the reduc- earlier than is customary. An event of tion for foreign postage to four cents a considerable moment across the border half-ounce, which the British delegate will has been the protest at Montreal of the propose at the International Postal Con- German, Belgian, and Swiss Consuls gress at Washington. This being the against the preferential clause of the new. sixtieth year of Queen Victoria's reign, Canadian tariff favoring Great Britain. Sir Michael compared the finances of The latter country has “most favored sixty years ago with those of the past nation” treaties with Germany, Belgium, year. Then the revenue was $262,000,- and other countries. These treaties pro000. Now it is three hundred millions vide that in no British colony shall the

Then seven-tenths of the revenue products be subject to higher import was derived from taxes on commodities; duties than obtain for the products of the now only 44 per cent. is derived in that United Kingdom. Replying to the proway. Then the total value of British test in his speech last week, Sir Richard trade was five-eighths of a billion dollars. Cartwright quoted from Wharton's “InNow it is three and a half billions. There ternational Law Digest:" “A covenant is some significance to other countries in to give privileges granted to the most the Chancellor's words referring to the pay- favored nation only refers to gratuitous ments to the royal family: "We were the privileges, and does not cover privileges best and cheapest monarchy in the world granted on the condition of a reciprocal in 1836–7; it cost the nation £ 534,000 advantage.” However it be decided, the ($2,670,000); now it costs the nation case is an extremely interesting one in £185,000 ($925,000).”

both commercial and political aspects.

more.

The most striking event in last week's In the April number of “Harper's business world was the beginning of gold Magazine" Lieutenant Richard Mitchell exports; these have now reached about gives us the benefit of his six years' serseven million dollars in amount. In face vice on the South American coast, and of the large actual merchandise balance tells why we have no larger trade with in our favor from foreign trade, appar- South America. Before our Civil War, ently over three hundred million dollars, United States merchants enjoyed a comthe present gold outflow seems at first merce not equaled since. To be sure, incomprehensible. The foreign trade in raw products, such as lumber, kerosene, gold and silver, however, lessens the and resin, so manifestly belong to us that above amount. During the past month the lost trade in them has returned; this there has been an abnormal increase in is also true of agricultural products and merchandise imports from all parts of the agricultural machinery. That we are far

from occupying our proper position, how- Hawaii. This treaty may not be amended ever, is seen in Lieutenant Mitchell's or abrogated except by consent of both statement of our exports to Brazil, Argen- parties. Mr. Thurston, the former Hatine, and Uruguay. Our exports are less waiian Minister to Washington, says that than nine per cent, of what those coun until recently no. Japanese were allowed tries receive in all, while our imports from 'by their Government to come to Hawaii them are nearly one-third of their total except under labor contracts; that policy exports. This small amount of exports has been recently changed. Five lines from us seems strange when we read of steamers between Honolulu and Japan that

make monthly trips, and every steamer South America has long been the dumping- brings from 200 to 800 Japanese. In ground for the refuse manufactures of Europe.. order to meet this emergency (since the În six years' service on that coast I never bought amount of employment on the islands is an imported article on shore that I could not necessarily limited), the Hawaiian Govbave duplicated at home with a better article for the same money.

ernment passed a law prohibiting the

landing of any person in Hawaii unless It would be well for our people to study he were possessed of cash to the amount the methods of Germany. By means of of fifty dollars. Japan has made various commercial museums at home, and the protests and attempts to evade this, and permanent exhibitions of the wrought-iron the peaceful invasion goes on. The Japanindustries in South America, as well as ese in Hawaii now number more than by opening chambers of commerce at Rio

any other nationality except the natives, de Janeiro, Buenos Ayres, and Monte- and there are two Japanese to every three video, she has increased her trade two natives. Annexationists in this country hundred per cent in the last five years. have been somewhat aroused; perhaps The Germans see that trade in one

the most prominent has been Captain article leads to another; therefore our Mahan, who says: " Shut out from the barbed wire is entering Japan through Sandwich Islands as a coal base, an German exporting houses at a lower price enemy is thrown back for supplies of fuel than they can manufacture it; besides, it to distances of 3,500 or 4,000 miles, or is to their advantage that the variety of between 7,000 and 8,000 going and comour exports should not extend. Again, ing--animpediment to sustaining maritime the United States is the only one of the operations well-nigh prohibitive.” The great commercial nations having no De- New York "Times " well replies that, partment of Commerce. Of steamers en

from the point of view of sea-fighting, tering Argentine ports, not one carries this is a perfectly intelligible reason why the American flag; and of the whole vol

we ought to annex Hawaii; but if we ume of trade to and from Brazil and the

annex it we must be prepared to defend United States, only one-twentieth is car it with a powerful Aleet; and a fleet strong ried on sailing ships flying our flag. enough to hold Hawaii would be strong

enough to defend our own coast against

any enemy using the islands as a coal The promotion of the Japanese Consul- basis. General at Hawaii to be Minister Resident is significant, in view of the recent troubles. Japan's agent will now have The Dingley Tariff Bill as revised by the larger authority in dealing with diplomatic Republican members of the Senate Fiaffairs. The sending of our cruiser, the nance Committee is to be reported to the Philadelphia, to Honolulu (in addition to Senate this week, but consideration of it the Marion, now on the station), has been will probably be deferred a fortnight in * thought by some of the Japanese to be order that the Democratic members may a menace to their Government. It is have an opportunity to examine the schedprobable, however, that both events should ules. It is understood that Senator Jones, be interpreted in the light of a peaceful of Nevada, the Populist member of the solution of present difficulties. Hawaii Finance Committee, remains a Republihas a treaty with Japan under which all can on the tariff issue, and will vote with Japanese bave unlimited ingress into his former party colleagues on condition

that a very high tariff is imposed on the that this year China will enter the Postal
raw materials produced in the West—es- Union, which will then include every im-
pecially hides, wool, and lead ore. This portant country in the world. The Union
condition seems to have been met, and the has now been in existence for twenty-three
bill is practically sure, not only of a fa- years, and has effected important reforms
vorable report, but also of a substantial in simplifying and lowering the rates for
majority, in the Senate. The ending of international communication. At this
the prolonged deadlock in Kentucky by year's convention a further reduction of
the election of Dr. W. J. Deboe gives the rates is proposed, the English Ministry
"regular" Republicans control of the Sen- having definitely indorsed the proposition
ate by means of the casting vote of Vice to reduce charges on ordinary letters from
President Hobart. On the tariff bill this five cents to four. This change will be wel-
narrow majority will probably be increased comed by the public, and if it results as
by the votes of the half-dozen former Re- previous reductions of rates have resulted,
publicans who supported Mr. Bryan in the it will not be costly to the various Post-
recent campaign. The most interesting Office Departments. The postal systems
speech recently made in the Senate was that of the world furnish the best illustration
of Senator Mason, of Illinois, calling for a of the way by which reduced charges may
modification of the Senate rules so as to pre be made to increase receipts. Prior to
vent a minority from blocking legislation. 1840 the private companies, and even the
The speech was Senator Mason's maiden Government, in Great Britain fixed the
effort, and the new Senator adroitly apolo- charges with a view to the greatest possible
gized for it by saying that he wished to ex- profit. The result was that postal rates,
press the sentiments of everybody outside instead of falling with the course of time,
of the Senate before he, too, succumbed to gradually became twice as high as two
the Senatorial desire to retain power to im- centuries earlier. In the year named the
pede measures he did not like. Senator Government accepted the "theory" of
Hoar apologized for the Senate rules by Rowland Hill, and reduced charges from
declaring that they were far more demo- sixpence for twenty miles to one penny
cratic than those of the House. The for all distances. In a few years this de-
House rules, he said, lodged all power, crease in charges resulted in an increase
not in a minority, but in one man, who in revenue to the public as well as an
could prevent the consideration of any incalculable service to the individual citi-
measure he did not like, and pass a tariff In the half-century that has since
bill he did like, without so much as the elapsed, the number of letters handled
reading of one-quarter of its sections. yearly has increased from 76 millions
Both Senator Mason's point and Senator to 2,800 millions. Concerning the growth
Hoar's were eminently well taken. The of international mail under the Postal
rules of both bodies should be revised Union we have no statistics at hand,
the House rules so as to permit delibera- but the increase has been very large.
tion, and the Senate rules so as to permit It is worthy of note that the different
action. At the present time the House is countries rely upon the principle that cor-
doing nothing but adjourning. Speaker respondence is reciprocal, and do not at-
Reed has not even appointed the com- tempt to ascertain whether there is any
mittees—his programme being that no "balance of trade” for or against any
legislation shall be enacted until the tariff particular country. Germany and France
bill is finally disposed of.

formerly tried to adjust their balances in
a strictly accurate way, but an infinite

amount of bookkeeping was entailed with
Postmaster-General Gary last week ap no other result than to show that it was
pointed the American delegates to the all useless, since each nation received
International Postal Congress to be held almost exactly the same number of letters
in Washington this month and next. The as it sent.
Congress opens on Wednesday of this
week, and will include the leading authori-
ties upon postal matters from every quar The Illinois House of Representatives,
ter of the globe. Indeed, it is anticipated by a vote of 125 to 3, has passed the

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zens.

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Senate bill re-establishing the Torrens feature of these protests is the belief they
system of registering land titles. The manifest that it is safer to intrust the in-
law enacted two years ago, it will be re terests of the people of Chicago to an
called, was overthrown by the State Su- elected City Council than an appointed
preme Court, on the ground that it gave State Commission. On this point the
the registrar of titles certain judicial Rev. Dr. Thomas, on Sunday of last week,
functions. The present bill meets this stated the general attitude of public-
objection by providing that these func- spirited men in these words:
tions shall be discharged by a Court of A corporation is trying by hasty legislation to
Chancery. This modification will some take the management of local affairs out of our
what increase the cost of registration, as

own control and to place it in the hands of a a formal suit must be entered in order to

State Commission. Personally I stand with our

city in this. I do not want to see the unborn establish titles. The cost of this suit, millions of thirty or fifty years hence deprived of however, according to the framers of the their just rights of local government. The people measure, will be but $20, except in com

have suffered enough, the city has lost enough, plicated cases, where the court may allow

by the corruption of the City Councils, and will

continue to lose until the power of that Council additional fees to examiners. When the

to sell or give away their rights is restricted by certificate is once issued, every subsequent some form of referendum government in which transfer will cost but $3, without any

the power to grant franchises shall be placed in abstract fee. The certificate will thus be suffer under present abuses and try to correct

the hands of the people. But it is far better to as readily negotiable as any bond. In them than to lose the right of self-government this way real estate will be transformed and be at the mercy of an outside power, into a quick asset, and the danger of bank A sensational feature has been added ruptcy to business men because they can to the campaign by the taking out of warnot at once realize upon real estate in rants for the arrest of several of the Senavestments will be greatly reduced. This tors who supported the Humphrey Bills. desirable end furnished one of the chief The charge, of course, is bribery. reasons for the unremitting advocacy of the bill by the Real Estate Board in Chicago. The measure will, of course, In Boston, without any measure before enormously reduce the costly labor re the Legislature to arouse popular excitequired from lawyers in the examination ment, the agitation for public control of the of titles. Hereafter one examination is street railways is rapidly gaining headway. to suffice, and the title of a piece of prop. The Boston Citizens' Committee is most erty will no longer need to be searched sensibly laying stress upon lower fares from the beginning with each transfer. rather than higher taxes from the street The present Illinois measure is substan- railway companies. Professor Frank Partially identical with the new law in Ohio. sons, of the Boston University Law California also has adopted a similar School, in an admirable letter to the Bosmeasure, and the recent action of the ton “Transcript,” brings out the fact tha: Minnesota and Massachusetts Legislatures the Ohio law now provides that street upon the same general system promises railway franchises shall be sold to the that this Australian reform will meet with company offering the lowest rate of fare, as wide favor in the United States as the and that the Massachusetts commission Australian ballot.

and the New York special committee on street and elevated railways in their re

ports last year both recommended this In Chicago the agitation against the plan. This is certainly the plan both of Humphrey Bills, which would fasten five justice and of economy.

If the street cent fares on the city for fifty years, and railway business were controlled by comlodge the control over city roads in a State petition, like the grocery business, its Commission, continues to gather strength. patrons would pay lower rates and would The Federation of Labor has issued a not be taxed indirectly.

What commost effective protest against them, and petition would establish in such cases a good many Chicago pulpits have de public control should establish. The plan nounced the social injustice of the prop- of low rates is also far more economical, ositions they contain. One important

for the roads can better afford to give the

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public a 40 per cent. concession in the severe provisions are made for the pre-
matter of fares than a 10 per cent. con vention and punishment of bribery at
cession in the matter of taxes, for the elections. An important temperance gain
lower fares would in a few years double is that local option is recognized as con-
business.

stitutional, and on this wise measure the

Convention is to be congratulated. The
The Constitutional Convention now in mitted to the vote of the people, as this

Constitution will probably not be sub-
session in Delaware will close its work

is not required by Delaware precedent.
this month. The present Constitution
dates from 1831, so there are, naturally,
many changes to make. Those who have

Governor Richards, of Wyoming, is a
been following the progress of the Single- civil engineer by profession, and has per-
Taxers in the “ Diamond State” will be in- sonally superintended much of the sur-
terested 10 learn that the Convention has veying of his State under Government
rendered their task considerably more

contract. He has taken a position against
difficult by inserting the following clause:

the recent act of President Cleveland set-
In all assessments of real estate for taxation, ting aside 21,000,000 acres for forest pre-
the value of the land and the value of the build-
ings and improvements the reon shall be included;

serves, and claims that hardships will re-
and in all assessments of the rental value of real sult to farmers, ranchmen, and miners if
estate for taxation, the rental value of the land the order is permitted to stand. He
and the rental value of the buildings and im thinks that the Forestry Commission bas
provements thereon shall be included.

made recommendations without sufficient
The advocates of equal suffrage in Del- knowledge of the facts, and has thus
aware have also been disappointed by discredited a worthy cause. Governor
a negative vote in the Convention of Richards says:
17 to 7, though woman organizers and

It is the experience of the people of this State,
workers from other States conducted a and the admission of the Commission which rec-
vigorous campaign at Dover. The great ommended these reserves, that the present law
majority of the Delaware women them does nothing to preserve timber from fire, the
selves, however, showed little interest.

chief agent of its destruction. Withdrawing these

areas from all beneficial uses is of itself of no Several radical changes have been made service unless some provision is made for their in the legislative system. The legislators management and for police supervision. The presare henceforth to be elected by districts, ent law makes no such provision. It withdraws and not, as before, by counties; and these

from those reserves the protection of local inter

ests, and leaves them exposed to the camp-fire of districts are to be fixed by the Conven the hunter, tourist, and sheep-herder. When we tion, and not left to the gerrymandering reflect that, if a settler's home is included within of either party in the future. A Lieuten

the boundaries of a reserve, there is no way for ant-Governor is also provided for, and

him to get title thereto; that if untimbered agri

cultural land is included within such boundaries, the Governor is given a veto power,

which

there is no provision in our present laws for hav. he has not possessed hitherto; but, on the ing this mistake corrected, and the lands opened other hand, his power of appointment is

up for settlement and development; when we re. greatly limited, and all of his more im

member that there is no provision for the miner

to continue his search for the undiscovered min. portant appointments must hereafter be

eral wealth, or to operate mines already known, confirmed by the Senate. The judiciary that there is no legislation under which we can remains appointive, and not elective. A use the splendid irrigation reservoirs which exist most important change is in the removal be had for ditches, roads, or other needed local

in these mountains, or by which rights of way can
of the old tax qualification for voters, improvement, we are warranted in believing that
which has been a fruitful source of fraud the advantages of these reservations are in no
for years. Instead of the payment of a

wise commensurate to their abuses.
tax, assessed at least six months before in reply to this it may be said that the
an election (which practically disfran- Forestry Commission has prepared a bill
chised many voters), a system of registra- proposing measures for the safeguarding
tion has been substituted. An educa- of all legitimate interests; certainly the
tional qualification will be required of all withdrawal of agricultural land should be
voters who attain twenty-one years of age, avoided when possible. Instead of wait-
or become naturalized, after 1900. Very ing for this bill, however, the enemies of

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