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year's revenue is to be.
Hence one cause world in order to escape the higher rates of deficits. For the four years ending of the proposed new tariff. Again, there July 1 they will have mounted to two is now a special demand for gold abroad. hundred million dollars. The radical dif- The countries making this demand are ference between the British method and the three now placing themselves on a our own is that, while Parliament often gold basis, Austria, Russia, and Japan. refuses some of the requested appropria- An event of quite as much political as tions, it never increases them. Accord- financial significance is the conclusion by ing to the last Budget, British finances the Russian Government of a $50,000,000 are in a notably favorable condition. 4 per cent. loan exclusively in Germany. During the past year receipts were $12,- Another cause for the outflow is, of 000,000 more than expenditures, and course, in the unsettling caused by the there has been a reduction in the national Græco-Turkish war. The gold exports debt of $37,000,000. The surplus this have occasioned no alarm; we have year will not be devoted to the remission $155,000,000 of the metal in the United of taxation, but to an increase of the States Treasury, and $87,000,000 in the naval estimates of the Imperial garrison banks, besides our own product. There in South Africa, to education in Ire- is usually a gold outflow at this season ; land and Scotland, and to postal reform. the present movement has begun slightly This last includes the cost of the reduc- earlier than is customary. An event of tion for foreign postage to four cents a considerable moment across the border half-ounce, which the British delegate will has been the protest at Montreal of the propose at the International Postal Con- German, Belgian, and Swiss Consuls gress at Washington. This being the against the preferential clause of the new. sixtieth year of Queen Victoria's reign, Canadian tariff favoring Great Britain. Sir Michael compared the finances of The latter country has “most favored sixty years ago with those of the past nation” treaties with Germany, Belgium, year. Then the revenue was $262,000,- and other countries. These treaties pro000. Now it is three hundred millions vide that in no British colony shall the
Then seven-tenths of the revenue products be subject to higher import was derived from taxes on commodities; duties than obtain for the products of the now only 44 per cent. is derived in that United Kingdom. Replying to the proway. Then the total value of British test in his speech last week, Sir Richard trade was five-eighths of a billion dollars. Cartwright quoted from Wharton's “InNow it is three and a half billions. There ternational Law Digest:" “A covenant is some significance to other countries in to give privileges granted to the most the Chancellor's words referring to the pay- favored nation only refers to gratuitous ments to the royal family: "We were the privileges, and does not cover privileges best and cheapest monarchy in the world granted on the condition of a reciprocal in 1836–7; it cost the nation £ 534,000 advantage.” However it be decided, the ($2,670,000); now it costs the nation case is an extremely interesting one in £185,000 ($925,000).”
both commercial and political aspects.
The most striking event in last week's In the April number of “Harper's business world was the beginning of gold Magazine" Lieutenant Richard Mitchell exports; these have now reached about gives us the benefit of his six years' serseven million dollars in amount. In face vice on the South American coast, and of the large actual merchandise balance tells why we have no larger trade with in our favor from foreign trade, appar- South America. Before our Civil War, ently over three hundred million dollars, United States merchants enjoyed a comthe present gold outflow seems at first merce not equaled since. To be sure, incomprehensible. The foreign trade in raw products, such as lumber, kerosene, gold and silver, however, lessens the and resin, so manifestly belong to us that above amount. During the past month the lost trade in them has returned; this there has been an abnormal increase in is also true of agricultural products and merchandise imports from all parts of the agricultural machinery. That we are far
from occupying our proper position, how- Hawaii. This treaty may not be amended ever, is seen in Lieutenant Mitchell's or abrogated except by consent of both statement of our exports to Brazil, Argen- parties. Mr. Thurston, the former Hatine, and Uruguay. Our exports are less waiian Minister to Washington, says that than nine per cent, of what those coun until recently no. Japanese were allowed tries receive in all, while our imports from 'by their Government to come to Hawaii them are nearly one-third of their total except under labor contracts; that policy exports. This small amount of exports has been recently changed. Five lines from us seems strange when we read of steamers between Honolulu and Japan that
make monthly trips, and every steamer South America has long been the dumping- brings from 200 to 800 Japanese. In ground for the refuse manufactures of Europe.. order to meet this emergency (since the În six years' service on that coast I never bought amount of employment on the islands is an imported article on shore that I could not necessarily limited), the Hawaiian Govbave duplicated at home with a better article for the same money.
ernment passed a law prohibiting the
landing of any person in Hawaii unless It would be well for our people to study he were possessed of cash to the amount the methods of Germany. By means of of fifty dollars. Japan has made various commercial museums at home, and the protests and attempts to evade this, and permanent exhibitions of the wrought-iron the peaceful invasion goes on. The Japanindustries in South America, as well as ese in Hawaii now number more than by opening chambers of commerce at Rio
any other nationality except the natives, de Janeiro, Buenos Ayres, and Monte- and there are two Japanese to every three video, she has increased her trade two natives. Annexationists in this country hundred per cent in the last five years. have been somewhat aroused; perhaps The Germans see that trade in one
the most prominent has been Captain article leads to another; therefore our Mahan, who says: " Shut out from the barbed wire is entering Japan through Sandwich Islands as a coal base, an German exporting houses at a lower price enemy is thrown back for supplies of fuel than they can manufacture it; besides, it to distances of 3,500 or 4,000 miles, or is to their advantage that the variety of between 7,000 and 8,000 going and comour exports should not extend. Again, ing--animpediment to sustaining maritime the United States is the only one of the operations well-nigh prohibitive.” The great commercial nations having no De- New York "Times " well replies that, partment of Commerce. Of steamers en
from the point of view of sea-fighting, tering Argentine ports, not one carries this is a perfectly intelligible reason why the American flag; and of the whole vol
we ought to annex Hawaii; but if we ume of trade to and from Brazil and the
annex it we must be prepared to defend United States, only one-twentieth is car it with a powerful Aleet; and a fleet strong ried on sailing ships flying our flag. enough to hold Hawaii would be strong
enough to defend our own coast against
any enemy using the islands as a coal The promotion of the Japanese Consul- basis. General at Hawaii to be Minister Resident is significant, in view of the recent troubles. Japan's agent will now have The Dingley Tariff Bill as revised by the larger authority in dealing with diplomatic Republican members of the Senate Fiaffairs. The sending of our cruiser, the nance Committee is to be reported to the Philadelphia, to Honolulu (in addition to Senate this week, but consideration of it the Marion, now on the station), has been will probably be deferred a fortnight in * thought by some of the Japanese to be order that the Democratic members may a menace to their Government. It is have an opportunity to examine the schedprobable, however, that both events should ules. It is understood that Senator Jones, be interpreted in the light of a peaceful of Nevada, the Populist member of the solution of present difficulties. Hawaii Finance Committee, remains a Republihas a treaty with Japan under which all can on the tariff issue, and will vote with Japanese bave unlimited ingress into his former party colleagues on condition
that a very high tariff is imposed on the that this year China will enter the Postal
formerly tried to adjust their balances in
amount of bookkeeping was entailed with
Senate bill re-establishing the Torrens feature of these protests is the belief they
own control and to place it in the hands of a a formal suit must be entered in order to
State Commission. Personally I stand with our
city in this. I do not want to see the unborn establish titles. The cost of this suit, millions of thirty or fifty years hence deprived of however, according to the framers of the their just rights of local government. The people measure, will be but $20, except in com
have suffered enough, the city has lost enough, plicated cases, where the court may allow
by the corruption of the City Councils, and will
continue to lose until the power of that Council additional fees to examiners. When the
to sell or give away their rights is restricted by certificate is once issued, every subsequent some form of referendum government in which transfer will cost but $3, without any
the power to grant franchises shall be placed in abstract fee. The certificate will thus be suffer under present abuses and try to correct
the hands of the people. But it is far better to as readily negotiable as any bond. In them than to lose the right of self-government this way real estate will be transformed and be at the mercy of an outside power, into a quick asset, and the danger of bank A sensational feature has been added ruptcy to business men because they can to the campaign by the taking out of warnot at once realize upon real estate in rants for the arrest of several of the Senavestments will be greatly reduced. This tors who supported the Humphrey Bills. desirable end furnished one of the chief The charge, of course, is bribery. reasons for the unremitting advocacy of the bill by the Real Estate Board in Chicago. The measure will, of course, In Boston, without any measure before enormously reduce the costly labor re the Legislature to arouse popular excitequired from lawyers in the examination ment, the agitation for public control of the of titles. Hereafter one examination is street railways is rapidly gaining headway. to suffice, and the title of a piece of prop. The Boston Citizens' Committee is most erty will no longer need to be searched sensibly laying stress upon lower fares from the beginning with each transfer. rather than higher taxes from the street The present Illinois measure is substan- railway companies. Professor Frank Partially identical with the new law in Ohio. sons, of the Boston University Law California also has adopted a similar School, in an admirable letter to the Bosmeasure, and the recent action of the ton “Transcript,” brings out the fact tha: Minnesota and Massachusetts Legislatures the Ohio law now provides that street upon the same general system promises railway franchises shall be sold to the that this Australian reform will meet with company offering the lowest rate of fare, as wide favor in the United States as the and that the Massachusetts commission Australian ballot.
and the New York special committee on street and elevated railways in their re
ports last year both recommended this In Chicago the agitation against the plan. This is certainly the plan both of Humphrey Bills, which would fasten five justice and of economy.
If the street cent fares on the city for fifty years, and railway business were controlled by comlodge the control over city roads in a State petition, like the grocery business, its Commission, continues to gather strength. patrons would pay lower rates and would The Federation of Labor has issued a not be taxed indirectly.
What commost effective protest against them, and petition would establish in such cases a good many Chicago pulpits have de public control should establish. The plan nounced the social injustice of the prop- of low rates is also far more economical, ositions they contain. One important
for the roads can better afford to give the
public a 40 per cent. concession in the severe provisions are made for the pre-
stitutional, and on this wise measure the
Convention is to be congratulated. The
Constitution will probably not be sub-
is not required by Delaware precedent.
Governor Richards, of Wyoming, is a
contract. He has taken a position against
the recent act of President Cleveland set-
serves, and claims that hardships will re-
made recommendations without sufficient
It is the experience of the people of this State,
chief agent of its destruction. Withdrawing these
areas from all beneficial uses is of itself of no Several radical changes have been made service unless some provision is made for their in the legislative system. The legislators management and for police supervision. The presare henceforth to be elected by districts, ent law makes no such provision. It withdraws and not, as before, by counties; and these
from those reserves the protection of local inter
ests, and leaves them exposed to the camp-fire of districts are to be fixed by the Conven the hunter, tourist, and sheep-herder. When we tion, and not left to the gerrymandering reflect that, if a settler's home is included within of either party in the future. A Lieuten
the boundaries of a reserve, there is no way for ant-Governor is also provided for, and
him to get title thereto; that if untimbered agri
cultural land is included within such boundaries, the Governor is given a veto power,
there is no provision in our present laws for hav. he has not possessed hitherto; but, on the ing this mistake corrected, and the lands opened other hand, his power of appointment is
up for settlement and development; when we re. greatly limited, and all of his more im
member that there is no provision for the miner
to continue his search for the undiscovered min. portant appointments must hereafter be
eral wealth, or to operate mines already known, confirmed by the Senate. The judiciary that there is no legislation under which we can remains appointive, and not elective. A use the splendid irrigation reservoirs which exist most important change is in the removal be had for ditches, roads, or other needed local
in these mountains, or by which rights of way can
wise commensurate to their abuses.