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THE EARLY POTTERIES OF STAFFORDSHIRE.

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in three rows, was also, many years ago, found at Over Tean.

It is interesting to note that besides the urns here engraved and described, several discoveries of similar kinds of pottery have been made in other parts of Staffordshire, principally by Mr. Bateman and Mr. Carrington ; and that even in the very centre of the potteries—at Shelton—while digging the foundations of the Shelton Blast Ironworks, which are now blasting the health and happiness of the inhabitants so efficiently, a barrow containing an urn, unfortunately not preserved, was discovered.

The next engraving shows a remarkably good cinerary urn from the neighbouring county of Derby, which will be seen to be of the same general form as those of Staffordshire.

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It was discovered, along with many interesting relics, in a barrow at Monsal Dale, where it was inverted over a deposit of calcined bones, placed on surface stones, and a bone pin was found among the remains. Two other urns, a part of a most interesting discovery of five such vessels and other remains in a barrow at Darley Dale, are also shown on the engravings on next page. They will be seen to vary somewhat

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THE EARLY POTTERIES OF STAFFORDSHIRE.

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in general form from those with the usual overlapping rims, and one of them has the peculiarity of looped ears at its sides. They may possibly have been the work of the females of a migratory tribe.

The Celtic drinking-vessels found in the Staffordshire and Derbyshire barrows are generally from about six to nine inches in height, tall in form, contracted in the middle, globular in their lower half, and expanding at the mouth. They are usually very richly ornamented with indented lines in different patterns; are carefully formed by hand, of fine and well-tempered clay, mixed with fine sand, and are well fired. They are the finest and best productions of Celtic fictile art. Two examples from barrows in the adjoining

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county, Derbyshire, will show the form of the “ drinkingcups" of this district. The first one was found in 1851, in a barrow called Bee Low, near Youlgreave. It was six inches and three quarters high, and carefully ornamented with indented twisted-thong patterns. It lay in the cist, as is usual in the barrows of this district, in front of the skeleton, which, as is generally the case, lay in a contracted position, with its knees drawn up, on its left side. The next one shows a different kind of ornamentation, still produced by twisted thongs. This beautiful vessel was found in a barrow at Hay Top, Monsal Dale, along with a skeleton and other interesting remains.

The food-vessels-small urns so called because they were apparently intended to contain an offering of food-vary very considerably both in form and in character of decoration, from the rudest to the most elaborate. These vessels are usually wide at the mouth, tapering gradually downwards, until quite small at the bottom. They are formed of clay of much the same quality as the cinerary urns, and are baked to about the same degree of hardness. A very plain and

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rude example from Trentham, Staffordshire, is here shown; and for the sake of comparison some other elaborately ornamented examples from Derbyshire barrows, and one from Wetton, Staffordshire, with loops at its sides, are also given.

The first of these, on the next page, is a beautiful vessel with ears, somewhat richly ornamented with indentations. It is five and a half inches high, and was found with a skeleton in the usual contracted position, along with a bone pin, and other interesting remains.

THE EARLY POTTERIES OF STAFFORDSHIRE.

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The other engravings exhibit two vessels from an interesting discovery made in a barrow on Hitter Hill,* where they

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were found in stone cists along with skeletons lying in contracted positions. They are in the possession of my

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friend Mr. J. F. Lucas, whose collection contains many interesting examples of fictile art.

• For an account of this discovery see the “Reliquary Quarterly Archæological Journal and Review," vol. iii. p. 159.

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