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Mes-o-po-ta'mi-a, country, Asia, between the rivers Euphrates and Tigris.

Mi-le'tus, city & s-p. A. M.; 35 S. Ephesus. It was anciently famous for its wealth and commerce.

Mi-le'tum, t. in Crete.
Mit-y-le'ne, t. in Lesbos, an island
on the coast of A. M., NW. of

My'ra, city, A. M. capital of Ly-
cia; 40 ENE. Patara.
Mys'i-a, country comprehending
the N. W. part of A. M.


Na'in, t. Galilee; 8 SE. Nazareth.

Nazareth, t. Galilee; 50 N. J. It is memorable for having been the residence of our Saviour for about 30 years. It contains 2,000 or 3,000 inhabitants, and is frequently visited by pilgrims, who are conducted to many places that are reputed holy. Ne-ap'o-lis, now Cavala, t. Mac., SE. of Philippi. Neph'tha-li, or Neph'tha-lim, Land of, district, in the north part of Galilee.

Ni-cop'o-lis, now Prevesa, t. Epirus; NW. of Actium. Nin'e-veh, city and capital of Assyria, on the Tigris. In ancient times it was one of the largest cities in the world. Some remains of it are now seen on the Tigris, opposite to Mosul.


Olives. Mount of, or Olivet, mt. Jud., to the east of J., from which it was separated by the brook Cedron.


Pam-phyl'i-a, country, A. M., bordering on the Med.

Paph-la-go'ni-a, country, A. M.,

bordering on the Euxine sea. Paphos, t. Cyprus, at the west end.

Parthi-a, country, Asia, E. of Media.

Pat'a-ra, s-p. A. M., in Lycia; 160 SE. Ephesus.

Pat'mos, now Patino or Palmosa, small rocky island in the Ægæan sea; 16 SW. Samos. A grotto in a rock, now converted into a monastery, called the Monastery of the Apocalypse, or of St. John, is pointed out as the spot where that apostle wrote the book of Revelation. Per'ga, now Karahissan, city, A. M., capital of Pamphylia; 90 S. W. Iconium. Per'ga-mus, now Pergamo, city, A. M., in Mysia, on the Caicus; 50 N. Smyrna. It was once a large city, the capital of a kingdom, and had a famous library. It now contains about 5,000 inhabitants.

Per'si-a, great empire, Asia, east of the Tigris.

Pho-ni'ce, or Pha-ni'cia, country in the north of Pal., on the Med., containing the cities of Tyre

and Sidon.

Phoenix, or Phe-ni'ce, t. in SW. part of Crete. Phil-a-delphi-a, now Allah-Shehr, city, A. M., in Lydia, on the Hermus; 65 E. Smyrna. It was once a large city; but now contains only about 3,000 inhabitants.

Phi-lip'pi, now Datos, city, Mac.; 70 ENE. Thessalonica. It was once a large city; now a mean village. Phryg'i-a, country, in the central part of A. M. Pi-sidi-a, country, A. M. S. of Phrygia.

Pon'tus, country, comprehending the NE. part of A. M., and bordering on the Euxine sea. Ptol-e-ma'is, now Acre, s-p. Pal.

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24 S. Tyre. It is famous for its siege by the Crusaders. It is now the principal port of Pal., and contains about 10,000 inhabitants.

Pu-te'o-li, now Pozzuolo, t. Italy; 6 W. Naples.

Ra'ma, t. Jud., between Bethlehem and J.; also another a few miles N. J.

Red Sea, or Arabian Gulf, a gulf about 1400 miles long, dividing Arabia from the opposite coast of Africa.

Rhegi-um, now Reggio, s-p. at the southern point of Italy, on the strait of Messina. Rhodes, island near the SW. corner of A. M. celebrated in ancient history for commerce, and for a colossal statue, which was reckoned one of the seven wonders of the world. Rome, city, Italy, on the Tiber,

12 miles from the sea. It was built on 7 hills, was the capital of the Roman empire, the mistress of the world, and the seat of arts and arms. It has long been the residence of the Pope, and the seat of ecclesiastical power. It contains St. Peter's church, the most magnificent edifice in the world, and has many monuments of its ancient grandeur. Though greatly reduced, it nevertheless contains about 136,000 inhabitants. Sal'a-mis, t. on the SE. part of Cyprus.


Sa'lim, t. Samaria; 40 N.
E. J.
Sal-mo ne, a promontory near the
east end of Crete.
Sa-ma'ri-a, the middle division of
Pal., bounded N. by Galilee, E.
by the Jordan, S. by Jud., and
W. by the Med.

Sa-ma'ri-a, now Sebaste, the capital of the kingdom of Israel, and of the province of Samaria; 36 N. J.

Egæan sea, separated from A. M. by a narrow strait. Sa-mo-thra'ce, or Sa-mo-thra'ci-a, now Samotraki, small island in the north part of the Egæan


Sar'dis, now Sart, city, A. M. capital of Lydia, on the Pactolus; 30 ENE. Smyrna. It was once a splendid city, but now a mean village. Sa-rep'ta, or Sar'e-phath, now Sarfend, city, Phoenicia; 8 S. Sidon. Sa'ron, or Sha'ron, t. Samaria, to the north of Lydda, and south of Antipatris.

Sel-eu'ci-a, s-p. Syria; 12 W. An tioch.

She'ba, country, bordering on the Red Sea, supposed by some to correspond to a part of Arabia. by others to a part of Abyssinia. Si'don, or Zi'don, now Saida, s-p. Phoenicia; 20 N. Tyre, 55 W. Damascus. It was once a great commercial city, but is now reduced to a meanly built town, yet is the port of Damascus, and has considerable trade. Sil'o-am, a fountain and tower near the walls of J.

Si'nai, mt. Arabia, in the midst of a desert, between the two northern arms of the Red sea. It is composed of red granite, in which steps have been cut, in order to facilitate the ascent. Immediately to the west of Sinai, is Mount Horeb, which is a summit of the same range. Si'on, or Zion, see J. Smyrna, city and s-p. A. M. in Ionia, 35 N. by W. Ephesus. It was anciently large and powerful, and is now the most populous and commercial city in A. M. Sod'om, one of the cities which were destroyed by fire from heaven, and which stood in the situation now occupied by the Dead Sea.

Spain, a country in the SW. of



Syr'a-cuse, once a rich and popu-| lous city, on the SE. part of the island of Sicily. Sychar, called also Sichem, and Shechem, now Napolose, city, Samaria, between mounts Ebal and Gerizim; 24 N. J. Three miles from Sychar was Jacob's Well, memorable for our Saviour's conversation with the woman of Samaria. On mount Gerizim was the temple of the Samaritans.

Syri-a, country, Asia, extending from A. M. and the Med. on the west, to the Euphrates on the east, and in its most extensive sense, including Pal. Sy-ro-phe-nic'i-a, that part of Phoenicia which bordered on Syria.

Tabor, conical mountain, Pal., to the west of the lake of G., supposed to have been the scene of the transfiguration. Tar'sus, city, A. M. capital of Cilicia, 100 NW. Antioch. It was anciently large and splendid, distinguished in the arts and sciences, but now decayed. Thes-sa-lo-ni'ca, now Saloniki, city and s-p. Mac., both in ancient and modern times large and commercial. It is situated on a gulf, about 200 N. Athens.

Three Tav'erns, place, Italy, about 30 S. by E. Rome. Thy-a-ti'ra,


now Akhisar, A. M. on the borders of Mysia and Lydia; 40 NE. Smyrna. Ti-be'ri-as, now Tabaria, t. Pal. capital of Galilee, on the west side of the lake of G. or sea of Tiberias, 58 N. J. It has long been a place of note among the Jews, and is one of the four holy cities of the Talmud, the other three being Safad, J. and Hebron.

Tra-cho-ni'tis, district in the NE. part of Pal.

Tro'as, district in the NW. corner of A. M. Tro-gylli-um, t. on the W. coast of A. M. a little to the SE. of the island of Samos.

Tyre, now Sur, city and s-p. Phoenicia; 20 S. Sidon. It is a very ancient city, in early ages celebrated for commerce. It is now a mean fishing town. Wil'der-ness, or Desert of Jud., an extensive desert, extending from the neighbourhood of Jericho to the south, along the west side of the Dead sea. Zab'u-lon, Tribe of, district Pal., on the W. side of the lake of G.

The preceding valuable Table constitutes a brief Gazeteer of the New Testament. To compress it into the narrowest possible compass, more abbreviations have been used than the AUTHOR made. It becomes necessary, therefore, that the Note of Explanations at the beginning of the Table, should be thoroughly committed to memory or constantly consult ed. A vague impression not unfrequently exists, that the places and events mentioned in the Scriptures, have little more connexion with this earth and our race, than the places and beings introduced in tales of Arabian nights about Fairies and Genii. A knowledge of Scripture Geography tends to counteract this evil.

It is desirable that the map now subjoined, should be attentively consulted to learn the general circumstances, the relative bearings and importance of seas, rivers, mountains, provinces, cities and towns delineated on it.

Editor of Reference Testament.

Chronological Table.

In a Chronological Table of the Scriptures PERFECT accuracy in dates is not to be expected. The most learned and laborious investigations have found, and left difficulties on this subject. No more is here proposed than to name the anthors of the different Books and about the time when they were written, according to the best means of deciding which the Compiler possessed.

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Noah was warned of the deluge. Books of Chronicles were proba2468.

Methuseleh died and the luge commenced. 2348.

bly compiled by Ezra, from Jewish de-authentic records to which he had access, and must be dated later. Book of Psalms principally written about this time.

Tower of Babel built. 2233.
Abram was born. 1996.
Isaac was born. 1889.
Abraham offers Isaac. 1871.
Esau and Jacob were born.


Joseph was born.


Absalom's rebellion and death.


David's advice to Solomon, and death. 1014.

Solomon commences building

Joseph was sold into Egypt. the Temple. 1013.

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Moses goes to Midian. 1531. God appears to him. 1491. Israelites pass the Red Sea. 1491.

Pentateuch written by Moses, and probably the book of Job. 1452.

Moses's death. 1451.
Joshua's victories commence.


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Between the time of the last date and the succeeding one Joterminate. 1443. nah, Micah, Amos, Hosea, Joel,

The Book of Joshua written. and Nahum prophecy and write 1443.

Government of the Judges com

mences. 1405.

Samuel is judge. 1096.
Saul anointed king. 1074.
The Books of Judges and Ruth

the Books which bear their names. Isaiah concludes the writing of is prophecy. 710.

Revival of Religion in Josiah's reign. 634.

Zephaniah and Habakuk "pro

were probably compiled by Samu-phecy and write the Books bear

el about this period. 1069. ling their names.


Jeremiah begins to prophecy.'continues a dutiful child till he arA. C. 610. rives to manhood. A. D. 12. Daniel carried to Babylon. 606. John Baptist commences his Jeremiah concludes his prophe- ministry. 28. cy, and writes his Book of Lamen- Christ is baptized,-is tempted, tations about this time. 590. -calls the twelve,-delivers his Ezekiel writes his prophecy, sermon on the mount,-and perand Daniel interprets Nebuchad- forms many of his miracles of mernezzar's first dream. 588. cy. 31.

Jerusalem taken and destroyed.


The golden image set up.
Babylon taken by Cyrus.
The decree for the Jews to

John Baptist beheaded. 32. Our Lord and Saviour Jesus 580. Christ is crucified.



The following order appears to re-be that in which the four Gospels,

turn, soon after which Daniel was the Epistles, and the other Books written. of the New Testament were writ


Darius renews the decree. bout this time the prophets Haggai and Zechariah write the Books which bear their names. 516.

Gospel by Matthew. 42.
Mark. 45.

Paul's first and second Epistles to Temple rebuilt and dedicated. the Thessalonians were written. 51. 490. Paul's first and second Epistles Book of Esther written, proba- to the Corinthians, his Epistles to bly by Ezra, who about this time the Romans and to the Galatians, was sent to govern Judea. 458. and Peter's first general Epistle Nehemiah appointed governor. were written. 57.


Paul's Epistles to the PhillipiBook of Ezra written. 435. ans, Ephesians, Colossians, HeThe Book of Nehemiah and the brews, and Philemon, and the prophecy of Malachi were written Gospel according to Luke were about this time, and perhaps the written. 61.

whole of the Old Testament put Acts of the Apostles were writinto its present form by Ezra be- ten by Luke. 63. fore his death.

425. Paul's first Epistle to Timothy Annunciation of the Son of God and his Epistle to Titus, with the to the Virgin Mary; John the Epistle of James were written. 66. Baptist born, and the Temple of Paul's second Epistle to Timothy and the second general Epistle Our Lord and Saviour Jesus of Peter were written. 69. Christ was born and circumcised under the law.

Janus shut.


A. D. 1.

Jude wrote his Epistle. 75.
Revelation of John was written

The infant Saviour returns from in the Isle of Patmos. 87. Egypt. 2. John writes his Gospel and his He confutes the Doctors and three Epistles about this time. 99. Table of Beferences.

The principal object of this Table is to direct the student of the New Testament to passages where Prophecies are either recorded or their accomplishment narrated.


: 23 Jud. 13:5 Sam. 1. 11

Ch. V.

1:23 Isa. 7: 14

2: 5 Mic. 5: 2
: 15 Hos. 9:1
: 17
Jer. 31: 15

: 3 Isa. 40:3


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