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Sa-ma'ri-a. sem.
Sa-mâr'i tans.


Sêr'gl-us. Sam-o-thrà'çi-å. Seth. Såm'son.

Sl'don. Sắmu-el.

Sllas. Sap-phł’rå.


Sap phire.


Si'mon. Sår'di-us.

sy'nå. Sår'dis.

Sl'on. Sår'do-nyx.

Smyr'nå. Sa-rèp'tă.

Sôd'om. Så'ron.

Sôl'o-mon. Sa'rach.

Sop'a-ter. Såul.

So-sip'a-ter. Sçe'vå.


Sẹy-thôno-lis. Staochys.
Sęy-tho-p8l/i- Stéph'a-nas.

Seçůn'dus. Su-şån'nå.
Se-lu'çi-å. Sy'chår.

Sy'chém. Ti-mo'the-us.



Sy-rð-phê-ni'çi-2. Tro-syll-um.


Tål'i-tha, Çu'mi.










Zach-a-ri as.

Thom'ås. Zeb'e-dée.

Ti-be'ri-as. Zé'nas.
Ti-be'ri-us. Zo-rðb'a-bel.



1, d. The long slender English a, as in fåte, påper, &c.
2, a. The long Italian a, as in får, father, papá, mama,
3, å. The broad German a, as in fåll, wåll, wåter,
4, a. The short sound of the Italian a, as in fåt måt, mårry,
1, è. The long e, as in me, here, métre, médium,
2, e. The short e, as in mét, let, gét,
1, l. The long diphthongal i, as in pine, title,
2, 1. The short simple e, as in pin, tittle,
1, d. The long open o, as in no, note, notice,
2, 8. The long close o, as in move, prove,
3, 8. The long broad o, as in nor, för, 8r; like the broad å.
4, 6. The short broad o, as in nốt, hốt, gỖt,
1, d. The long diphthongal u, as in tåbe, cupid,
2, å. The short simple u, as in tûb, cảp, súp,
3, Å. The middle or obtuse u, as in båll, full, půll,

ç, denotes the hard sound of these letters, as in give, copy,
$ ş, denotes the soft sound of these letters, as in gentry, city,

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THE knowledge of geography possessed by the ancients, was confined chiefly to the middle and south of Europe, the south-western part of Asia, and the northern part of Africa.

The geography of the New Testament is limited mostly to the countries bordering on the Mediterranean sea. This sea is called in the Old Testament the Great Sea, and most of the countries mentioned in that portion of the Scriptures, either bordered upon it, or were situated not very far distant. Some of the most remote were Persia and Media.

At the period of the ministry of our Saviour and of his apostles, almost all the countries mentioned in the New Testament were included in the Roman empire, or were subject to the Romans.

The world, as the word is used in the New Testament, sometimes means the whole inhabited world; sometimes it includes only the Roman empire; and sometimes it is used in a still far more limited

The only seas which are spoken of in the New Testament are the sea of Galilee, which is properly a lake, the Red sea, and parts of the Mediterranean sea.

The journeyings of our Saviour, during his ministry, were limited to Palestine.

The travels of St. Paul in preaching the gospel, were confined chiefly to Palestine, Syria, the countries of Asia Minor, also Greece and Italy.

The country now called Palestine, or the Holy Land, was anciently styled the Land of Canaan, afterwards the Land of Promise, or the Promised Land, the Land of Israel, and Judea.-It was anciently divided into 12 parts or tribes, named from the sons of Jacob; afterwards into the two kingdoms of Judah and Israel. At the period of the New Testament history, it was subject to the Romans, and the part west of the Jordan was divided into three provinces, Judea, in the south, Samaria, in the middle, and Galilee, in the north.

The countries of Asia Minor, mentioned in the New Testament, were Mysia, Troas, Bithynia, Pontus, Asia, Galatia, Phrygia, Lycaonia, Cappadocia, Lycia, Pamphylia, Pisidia, and Cilicia. The Roman proconsular province of Asia embraced the western part of Asia Minor, comprehending Mysia, Phrygia, Lydia, and Caria. The seven churches of Asia were all included in this province.


Ab-i-le'ne, pr.* Colo-Syria, be-| A-cha'i-a, pr. Peloponnesus; also tween Libanus and Anti-Liba

a pr., including all the south

part of Gr. A-cel'da-ma, field, S. of J. | Ad-ra-myt'ti-um, now Adramiti,

* Explanations. In the following notices of the places mentioned in the New Testament, distances are given in geographical miles The abbreviation A. M. is used for Asia Minor ;-Gr. for Greece ;--,

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s-p. Asia Minor in Mysia; 70 tile part; Arabia Petrea or N. Smyrna.

Stony, in the north west; and A'dri-a, a name of the Adriatic Arabia Deserta in the north

sea, or gulf of Venice, so called and north east, consisting chiefly from the town of Adria, in of barren deserts of scorching Italy

sand. Æ-ge'an Sea, now Archipelago, A-re-op'a-gus, or Mars' Hill, a hill

a sea between Gr. and A. M. in the city of Athens, where Al-ex-an'dri-a, or Al-ex-an-dri'a, the

supreme court of justice great city and

s-p. Egypt, was held. for a long time the most com- Ar-i-ma-the'a, or Ramah, t. Jud. mercial city in the world. It

10 ESE. Joppa. was also a distinguished seat of Ar-ma-ged'don, place, Samaria, learning, and famous for its E. of Cæsarea. library, which was burnt in 638. A'si-a, in the New Testament, It is now in a state of decay, sometimes means A. M. and but contains some remarkable sometimes only a district in remains of ancient grandeur, as the western part of it, of which Pompey's Pillar, Cleopatra's Ephesus was the chief city, but Needles, the Cisterns, and Cata- never the continent of Asia. combs.

As'sos, now Asso, s-p. A. M. in Am-phip'o-lis, now Emboli, city, Mysia; 32 W. Adramyttium.

Mac. near the mouth of the Ath'éns, capital of Attica, and the Strymon; 48 E. by N. Thessa- most famous city of Gr. It lonica.

was for a long time the most Anlti-och, now Antachia, city, celebrated school in the world

Syria, on the Orontes, 18 miles for polite learning, arts, and above its mouth. It was once sciences, and gave birth to some the chief city of Syria, and fa- of the most eminent philosomous for its magnitude, wealth, phers, poets, and statesmen of and commerce. It was styled antiquity. the 'eye of the eastern church;'At-ta-li'a, now Sataha, s-p. A. M. and here the disciples of Christ in Pamphylia, on a bay of the

were first called Christians. Med. 20 W. Perga. An'ti-och, now Akshehr, t. A. M. A-zo'tus, or Ash'dod, now Ezin Pisidia ; 180 W. by N. Tar- doud, t. Pal. in the country of

the Philistines; 20 S. by W. An-tip'a-tris, t. Samaria; 25 W Joppa.

SW. Samaria.
Ap'pr-i Fo'rum, now Fossa Nvo-

va, t. Italy; 40 S. E. Rome.
A-pol-lo'ni-a, t. Mac. 30 E. by S. Bab'y-lon, capital of Babylonia or

Chaldea, situated on the EuphraA-ra'bi-a, country, Asia, lying east It was one of the most re. of the Red sea, and south of Pal. nowned cities on the globe. Its and Syria. It was divided into walls were 60 miles in circuit, Arabia Felix, or Happy, in the and were reckoned one of the

south, comprising the most fer-| seven wonders of the world. J. for Jerusalem;-Jud. for Judea ;-lal of G. for lak of Ge. nesareth ;-Mac. for Macedonia ;-Med. for Mediterranean Sea ;Mt. for mountain ;-Pal. for Palestine ;-pr. for province ;--8-p. foi sea-port ;-t. for town ;-and v. for village.


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ple at J.

part of A. M.

The ruins of this city are now G. ; 60 N. J. In the vicinity is seen about 60 miles S. of Bag- the mount on which our Saviour dad.

delivered his memorable serBerce'a, now Veria, t. Mac.; 48 W. Thessalonica.

Cap-pa-do'ci-a, country, in the east Beth-ab'a-ra, t. Pal., on the east

part of A. M. side of the Jordan.

Ce'dron, or Kidron, rivulet, Jud. Beth'a-n t. Jud.; 2 E. J.

passing by J., and flowing into Be-thes'da, pool, north of the tem- the Dead sea.

Cen'chre-a, s-p. Gr., a little distance Beth'le-hem, t. Jud.; 6 S. J. It is from Corinth, being the eastern

memorable on account of being port of that city. the birth-place of our Saviour. Charfran, Ha'ran, or Char ræ, It was styled Bethlehem of Ju- now Heren, t. Mesopotamia, 70 dah, or Bethlehem Eph'ra-ta, to miles from the Euphrates, 150 distinguish it from another Beth- ENE. Antioch. lehem in Zebulun, near Naza- Chi'os, now Scio, island in the reth. The country to the south Ægæan sea. of Bethlehem is called in the Cho-ra'zin, t. Pal., in Galilee, New Testament, the Hill-coun- at the north end of the lake of try of Judea.

G.; a little to the east of CaBeth'pha-ge, v. Jud. ; on the mount

pernaum. of Olives; 2 E. J.

Ci-li'ci-a, country in the SE. Beth-sa'i-da, t. Galilee, on NW.

side of the lake of G. SW. of Clau'da, a little island on the S. Capernaum.

W. side of Crete. Bi-thyn'i-a, country, A. M., in the Cni'dus, now Crio, t. A. M.; in

NW. part, bordering on the SW. corner; 70 S. Ephesus. Euxine sea and the Propontis. Co-los'se, t. A. M. in Phrygia, on

the Meander, near Laodicea. C.

Coos, or Cos, now Stanchio,

island in the Ægæan sea. Cæs-a-rea, city and s-p. Pal., in Cor’inth, city, Gr. in the north

Samaria; 25 N Joppa. This part of the Peloponnesus, on the was the seat of the Roman go- isthmus of Corinth; 46 WN of Pal.

W. Athens. It was celebrated Cæs-a-rea Phi-lippi ; now Pa- for wealth, commerce, arts, and

neas, t. Pal., in Galilee; 24 E. magnificence. by S. Tyre. This town was Crete, now Candia, the largest of first called Laish, afterwards the Grecian islands, situated to Dan. It was situated on the the south of the Ægæan sea. north border of the land of Is- Cyprus, a large and fertile island rael, as Beer sheba was on the in the eastern part of the Med. south. Hence the phrase, to Cy-re'ne, now Čuren, city & express the limits of the coun- Africa, in Libya, on the Med.

try, “ From Dan to Beer-sheba." Calva-ry, a hill on the NW. side

D. of J. ; where our Lord was crucified.

Dal-ma-nu'tha, t. Pal., on SE. Ca'na, t. Pal. in Galilee ; a few part of the lake of G. miles N. of Nazareth.

Dal-ma'ti-a, the southeyn part of Ca-per' na-um, t. Pal. in Galilee; Illyricum, on the east side of on the north end of the lake of the Adriatic sea.



part of Gr.

Da-mas'cus, city, Syria, 50 miles E-pi'rus, country in the NW.

from the Med., 120 NNE. J. It is one of the most ancient E-thi-o'pi-a, country, Africa, lying cities in the world, famous both S. of Egypt, now consisting of in sacred and profane history. Nubia, Abyssinia, &c. It is now populous and commer- Ev-phra'tes, one of the largest and cial.

most celebrated rivers of Asia. Dead Sea, Sea of Sodom, Salt Sea, It rises in the mountains of Ar

or Lake As-phal-ti'tes, salt lake, menia, and after a course of Pal., 70 miles long, and 10 or 15 1500 miles, flows into the Perbroad. It occupies the spot

sian gulf. where the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah are supposed to have

F. stood. The water is clear and limpid, but very salt and bitter, Fair Ha'vens, s-p. on the east and of greater specific gravity

end of Crete. than that of any other lake that

is known. De-capo-lis, a district of country

G. in Pal. comprising ten cities, lying chiefly to the east of the Gad'a-ra, t. Pal., to the east of Jordan and the lake of G.

the lake of G. Deribe, t. A. M., in Lycaonia; Ga-la'ti-a, country, A. M., N. of 40 S. Iconium.

Gali-lee, the northern division of

Pal., divided into Upper and

Lower. Upper Galilee, the

northern part, was called GaliEgypt, country, in NE. part of lee of the Gentiles.

Africa, watered by the Nile, and Ga'za, t. Pal., in the country of celebrated as the cradle of the the Philistines ; 44 SW.J. sciences.

Gennesareth, Lake of, or Sea of E'lam, an ancient name of Persia. Galilee, or Sea of Tiberias, Em'ma-us, t. Jud., 7 miles from J. lake, Pal.; 50 N. J. It is 17

Here our Saviour appeared to miles long, and 6 broad. It is his disciples after his resurrec- a beautiful lake, surrounded by tion. There were two other fine scenery, and was much freplaces of the same name; one quented by our Saviour and his 22 NW. of J.; the other near disciples.

the south end of the lake of G. Ger-ge-senes', a people so-called E'non, t. Pal., on W. side of the from Gergesa, a town situated Jordan, near Salim.

to the east of the lake of G. Eph'e-sus, city, A. M., capital of Geth-sem'a-ne, v. and garden on the province of Asia, on the the east side of J. between mt, Cayster ; 35 S. by E. Smyrna. It Olivet and the brook Cedron. was one of the most splendid Golgo-tha, a part of Calvary cities in the world, and had a ce- where our Saviour was cruci lebrated temple of Diana, which fied. was accounted one of the seven Go-morrah, one of the five cities wonders of the world.

which were situated on the E'phra-im, t. Pal. in the country plain of Sodom, and were de

belonging to the tribe of Ephra- stroyed by fire from heaven. im: 8 NE. J.

Greece, a country comprising the

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