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nomination throughout the world. This period of time also saw the college, sanitarium, and publishing house put upon a strong footing.
The Avondale school, known now as the Australasian Missionary College, has been conducted from the beginning on the industrial plan, and has had for the most part a very prosperous career. Like many of our institutions, especially our schools, it had its share of embarrassment and trial. At a time of special embarrassment, E. R. Palmer was called from the Echo Publishing House to help out in the school work, and for two years there was an encouraging growth. Later Prof. C. W. Irwin, from the United States, was with the institution for eight years, during which time further substantial advancement was made.
The industries of the school, such as gardening and fruitraising, the manufacture of health foods, the printing of island literature, etc., after becoming well established, enabled it to open its doors to large numbers of deserving young people who could not otherwise have obtained an education, and the combination of useful hand labor with book studies has made for all-round development. From the school have gone out devoted men and women, not only to various parts of Australia and New Zealand, but also to many of the islands of the Pacific, to Asiatic countries, and to other parts of the great harvest field.
The Echo Publishing Company, organized some eighteen years previously, was in 1906 removed to Warburton, a rural community forty-eight miles east of Melbourne. At the same time all commercial work was given up, yet the office has kept more than busy supplying the workers with the denominational publications. The Avondale Press, connected with the college, issues two English periodicals and several in native tongues of the South Pacific Islands, as well as tracts and books in various. languages. Prominent among the managers of the publishing house have been W. D. Salisbury, W. H. B. Miller, one of the young men who closed out their own publishing business in 1885 in order to work on the Bible Echo, and J. M. Johanson.
Australia has from the beginning offered a favorable field for the colporteur. William Arnold, a member of the first company of workers, was successful in introducing the denominational books into thousands of homes, and he was followed in early days by other men who enjoyed similar success. In course of time, however, a backward trend began to manifest itself in this work. Some of the agents became involved in debt, the tract societies slackened their efforts, and the publishing house
began to deal directly with the canvassers, the sales meanwhile undergoing a steady decline. Under these circumstances a call was made for an experienced man to be sent from the States to revive the work by putting it once more on a sound basis. E. R. Palmer, of New England, who had recently been associated with F. L. Mead in conducting canvassers' institutes in various parts of the country, and was then secretary-treasurer of the Oklahoma Tract Society, was sent in response to this
call. He landed at Melbourne about the first of May, and joining with other experienced leaders already in that field, immediately applied himself to the task in hand. He was first connected as general agent with the Australian tract society, and after about one year, connected with the publishing house as manager of the book and periodical department and with the Australasian Union Conference as general agent. The Australian tract society was later divided into six different societies, each representing a local conference. Secretaries were trained for these societies, who took hold of the work with vim and enthusiasm, and general agents were appointed to train colporteurs and direct their activities in the field. In a short time the book work began to show tangible results, and the sales ultimately increased fourfold. When E. R. Palmer was called back to America in 1901, the work was continued under the leadership of other men, prominent among whom were J. M. Johanson and L. D. A. Lemke.
Health work was begun by A. W. Semmens, a nurse, who started treatment-rooms in Sydney. The interest thus devel
oped took form finally in the Wahroonga Sanitarium, conducted in a suburb of Sydney by Drs. D. H. and Lauretta Kress, who landed in Australia in the autumn of 1900. Later a small sanitarium was opened in Adelaide, and in 1910 another institution of the kind was established at Warburton.
When A. G. Daniells returned to America in 1901, G. A. Irwin took his place as president of the Australasian Union. He was followed four years later by O. A. Olsen, who was succeeded by J. E. Fulton. After the latter was called elsewhere, the direction of the work for a number of years rested with C. H. Watson.
While Elder J. O. Corliss was conducting the various tent efforts that resulted so successfully in Melbourne, Elder Haskell went to the neighboring island of New Zealand, chiefly for the purpose of securing agencies for the monthly paper, The Bible Echo and Signs of the Times, which was to come out in January. He found in Auckland a denomination whose members, calling themselves Christians, appeared to have much in common with Seventh-day Adventists. Some of them were accustomed to meet for a sort of class meeting on Thursday nights, in order to discuss different points of doctrine. Elder Haskell was invited to meet with them, and present those doctrines wherein Adventists differ from other denominations. This resulted in a discussion of the Sabbath question with the pastor of the church. Another class of the same character was held at Mount Eden, one of the suburbs of Auckland, and at this one Elder Haskell introduced the subject of the personal and visible coming of Christ.
As a result of these discussions a number began to observe the Sabbath. One of the first in Auckland was Edward Hare, who with his wife soon embraced the Adventist views, and began at once to interest himself in the circulation of the books and papers containing the truth. At his request Elder Haskell visited his father and mother, who resided in Kaeo, 160 miles north of Auckland. The elder Hare, who had been a schoolmaster in Ireland for twenty years, was at the time a local preacher for the Methodists. Elder Haskell occupied his pulpit for three Sundays; he also held meetings in a hall, and visited freely from house to house. Father Hare and his son Robert, also a local preacher, embraced the truth, and Robert sailed shortly for America, where he entered Healdsburg College.
As a result of this first visit of Elder Haskell, two families took their stand for the Sabbath; but their numbers being few, they did not hold public meetings. Returning to the place a few months later, Brother Haskell found that the believers had continued faithful, and the interest had deepened, the opposition also having greatly increased.
The people, never having witnessed Scriptural baptism, had strange ideas of it, and were reluctant to move forward; but after the first baptism their objections were fully removed. Three were converted the night after the first baptism, and two days later eight others were baptized. After the second baptism a church of seventeen members was organized, and the ordinances were celebrated at the home of Father Hare. Arrangements were made for a Sabbath school, and the number of believers steadily increased. By September of the same year there were keeping the Sabbath in Father Hare's family alone, some forty persons, including children and grandchildren.
In the autumn of 1886, Elder and Mrs. A. G. Daniells, who had been conducting a mission in Des Moines, Iowa, went to New Zealand to labor. A fifty-foot tent, brought from America, was pitched in Auckland, and a series of services covering seventeen weeks was begun on December 29. About sixty persons accepted the Adventist views as a result of these meetings. Elder and Mrs. W. D. Curtis were associated with the effort during the closing month. From the company of believers thus brought out there was shortly organized a church of seventy members, a Sabbath school numbering a hundred, a tract society, a health and temperance society, and a small company of canvassers. Moreover, a house of worship had been erected, and was almost entirely paid for when it was ready for use in the summer of 1887.
Elder Daniells' second tent effort in New Zealand was conducted at Napier in 1888, Robert Hare, who had returned from America, assisting in the work. Here also the meetings were
well attended, a church of more than fifty members was organized, and a commodious church building erected.
At the close of the Napier tent-meetings, Mr. Hare removed to Gisborne, where he was able, in the course of a few months, to raise up a company of believers. A house of worship for this church was provided by purchasing a suitable building from another denomination.
In the spring of 1889, Elder M. C. Israel came from Tasmania, and spent some weeks in visiting the New Zealand
churches. About the same time Elder and Mrs. E. M. Morrison, from America, devoted several months to the building up of the canvassing and Sabbath school work. During the stay of these workers a general meeting was held in Auckland, at which were organized the New Zealand Conference and the tract society.
When Robert Hare was transferred to Australia, early in 1890, M. C. Israel moved with his family to New Zealand. Immediately after the holding of the first annual conference, A. G. Daniells opened tent meetings in Wellington, the capital of the colony, at the same time locating a book depository in the city, and arranging for the introduction of denominational literature by canvassers. He was presently called away,