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finished, there were just three items which were not furnished by the work of native hands, the glass of the windows, the linoleum of which the blackboards were made, and three wall maps.

In 1909 the same dairy which had been producing a dozen or so pounds of butter a week, had its business decidedly increased by the purchase of some excellent stock, and was able to furnish, with only slight expenses for upkeep, a cash income of from $100 to $125 a month. In that year rubber trees were planted in some of the old coffee fields, and some cotton was raised.

The aim of the school work has been to develop and draw out the best traits of the young people who attend, with a view to fitting them for future usefulness. Naturally, special attention is given to the preparation of evangelistic school-teachers, there being the greatest demand for such, and the majority of those who show a fitness for this work are eager to take it up. At the close of 1912 nearly a hundred young men were already serving as teachers or assistant teachers. Others were developing in mechanical lines, and such were used in the carpenter shop, and in building and field operations. Others take to tailoring, domestic or overseer's work, and nearly all have shown great faithfulness in what they have undertaken.

The mission was for a time undermanned with white workers; and this caused heavy burdens to fall on those who stood at its head. Two sisters, the Misses Ina and Etta Austen, joined the mission force in 1910; but the elder was obliged to return before the end of the first year. The other, Miss Etta Austen, remained nearly two years, having charge of the girls' home. In November, 1910, G. A. Ellingworth arrived and took the position of business manager and overseer of the rubber and cotton fields. A year later, C. Robinson, previously connected with the mission in Rhodesia, came to Malamulo to act as superintendent during the absence of J. C. Rogers on furlough.

The Musofu Mission

S. M. Konigmacher, of the Barotseland Mission, did some prospecting for a new mission site in the year 1916. He fixed on a spot near the Congo border, twenty-two miles from the railway station of Bwana Mkubwa. A school was started, and the native young people flocked in. By 1919 there was an attendance of about 200, and the school had an actual enrolment of 150.

The Songa Mission

W. E. Straw and F. R. Stockil prospected for this location, which is on the Lulwelwe River, ten miles east of the larger Lomami River, and a hundred miles north of Bukama, the terminus of the Congo railway. C. Robinson, who had labored formerly in connection with the Nyasaland missions, secured from the government a grant of 1,000 acres, and with the assistance of G. Willmore superintended the erection of the necessary buildings.

The Kolo Mission

Basutoland, which includes the most elevated and mountainous portion of South Africa, has been called "The African Switzerland." On the grassy hills and mountains thousands of cattle, sheep, goats, and horses find pasture, while the fertile valleys yield abundant crops of mealies, kafir corn, wheat, and pumpkins, which furnish the food supply for a population of nearly 250,000 natives.

The conversion and baptism of David Kalaka, a Basuto, has been related in the early pages of this chapter. He returned in 1898 to Kolo, near Mafeking, on the southwestern border of Basutoland, where he gave an account of his new faith to his friends. The chief invited him to start a mission, and J. M. Freeman joined him in opening Kolo station. J. A. Chaney was also one of the early workers.

The Emmanuel Mission

Toward the close of 1909, M. E. Emmerson and H. C. Olmstead, with Murray Kalaka as interpreter, made a trip into the northern part of Basutoland to locate a new mission station. The old chief Jonathan, who controlled the district, gave his consent to the undertaking. The mission site, which was changed three times, but always for the better, has about twenty-five acres of good land, and is situated on a main road eleven miles from a railway siding. A native day school and an evening school for herd boys have been in operation almost from the beginning. There is also a flourishing Sabbath school. Several meetings are held weekly. A. P. Tarr, a former student of Battle Creek College, was for a time in charge of the training school. F. MacDonald, medical missionary and superintendent, reported a church membership of fifty-five in 1919.


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LITTLE is known of the history of Northwest Rhodesia previous to the coming of the white man. The inhabitants were continually warring among themselves, and were often raided by their powerful neighbors, the Matabeles. Although the country was filled with game, the prevalence of the tsetse fly made it in large part uninhabitable for the white man; but when in the providence of God the time had come for the land. to be opened, He allowed the rinderpest to pass through the country, and destroy the game by thousands. With the destruction of the game, the tsetse fly disappeared from large areas, thus opening the way for civilization. Moreover, the British government put an end to the wars.

The Rusangu Mission

Lewanika, the native chief, visited England at the coronation of the late King Edward VII, and on his return he invited

more missionaries to enter the country and teach his people. W. H. Anderson was one of the missionaries who accepted this invitation. He left Bulawayo, Southern Rhodesia, in July, 1903, accompanied by five native boys as carriers from the Solusi Mission. Reaching the end of the railway, he began an 800mile trip through the country. The first day out a hired native stole his load, and ran away. With him went the supply of fruit, salt, and sugar that Mr. Anderson had laid in for the journey; so these things had to be omitted from the bill of fare during the next three months.

It is a difficult thing to start on foot to locate a mission farm in a territory covering some thousands of square miles. Elder Anderson had scarcely begun his work when he was taken with a severe attack of dysentery, and thought his end had come. He left a last message for his wife and child, and lay down on the veldt to die; but the carriers took him to the camp of a hunter, where he remained for two weeks. Then, though still weak and emaciated, he resumed his journey. In three months the work was completed. He had located a farm on the Makoe River, where there was a spring of fresh water and good soil. Later the railway was built so as to pass directly by the farm.

In 1904 W. H. Anderson returned to America, where he received sufficient money to make a start in the new territory. In May, 1905, he again crossed the Zambesi at Victoria Falls, and began the journey of hundreds of miles with a span of eighteen untrained oxen. With his wife and child, he arrived at the Rusangu Mission July 3, and at once began to build a house. There was famine in the land, food was very scarce, and many of the natives were perishing from hunger. His own teachers, who had come from the station at Solusi, could be supplied only half rations. Nevertheless, there was no complaining, and not one of them turned back. The ground was soon plowed, and sixty-five acres of mealies (maize) planted. The crop was a good one, and never since then has the mission lacked food. Although the accommodations were very poor to begin with, the natives came to the school, and there were soon forty or more pupils in training. When the wet season came on, it brought fever, and often Mr. and Mrs. Anderson and the little girl were all three in bed at once. Still their lives were spared, and the work prospered. When G. A. Irwin, then vicepresident of the General Conference, visited the mission in 1907, the rains had washed out the gable ends of the house, and likewise the chimney. He kindly promised £150 to pay for the

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