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PILOCARPUS, U. S.–Pilocarpus. (Jaborandi.)—The leaflets of Pilocarpus Selloanus, and of P. Jaborandi, containing pilocarpine, Cu H16N,O2, and volatile oil, consisting principally of dipentene, C10H16, a terpene.

Official Preparation. - Extractum Pilocarpi Fluidum.

PILOCARPINÆ HYDROCHLORAS, U. S. — Pilocarpine Hydrochlorate. CuH6N,O2.HCI; 243.98.—Minute, white crystals, deliquescent on exposure to damp air ; odorless; faintly bitter taste; neutral reaction. Prepared by treating pilocarpine with dilute HCl, concentrating, and crystallizing

COLCHICI RADIX, U. S.-Colchicum Root.—The corm of Colchicum autumnale.

COLCHICI SEMEN, U. S.-Colchicum Seed.—The seed of Colchicum autumnale. Colchicum contains the alkaloid colchicine, both in corm and seed. In the former there are present starch, gum, fat, sugar, resin, etc. In the latter a fixed oil is found in addition to the other principles. The alkaloid may be extracted by digesting the seeds in hot alcohol without powdering them.

Official Preparations.—Extractum Colchici Radicis, Extractum Colchici Radicis Fluidum, Vinum Colchici Radicis, Extractum Colchici Seminis Fluidum, Tinctura Colchici Seminis, Vinum Colchici Seminis.

VERATRUM VIRIDE, U. S.-Veratrum Viride. (American hellebore.)— The rhizome and rootlets of Veratrum viride, containing the alkaloids jervine, veratroidine, pseudojervine, and rubijervine, also resins, starch, coloring matter, etc.

Official Preparations. --Extractum Veratri Viridis Fluidum, Tinctura Veratri Viridis.

VERATRINA, U. S.–Veratrine.—An alkaloid or mixture of alkaloids, prepared from the seeds of Asagræa officinalis, occurring in the form of a white or grayish-white, amorphous, semi-crystalline powder, permanent in the air; odorless, but causing intense irritation and sneezing when even a minute quantity reaches the nasal mucous membrane; of acrid taste, leaving a sensation of tingling and numbness on the tongue ; feebly alkaline reaction. Prepared by exhausting the seeds with alcohol, recovering the alcohol by distillation, diluting the residuary liquid, which contains veratrine in its neutral combination with veratric acid, with water, to precipitate the resin, filtering, adding potassa or ammonia to precipitate the alkaloid, redissolving, decolorizing, and reprecipitating.

Official Preparations. -Oleatum Veratrinæ, Unguentum Veratrinæ. CHELIDONIUM, U. S.-Chelidonium. (Celandine.)-Chelidonium majus contains chelerythrine, chelidonine, C19H17N,O3, chelidoxanthin, and chelidonic acid.

SANGUINARIA, U.S.-Sanguinaria. (Bloodroot.) — The rhizome of Sanguinaria canadensis, collected in autumn and containing sanguinarine, C,H, N04; a colorless alkaloid, which yields bright red salts; another unnamed alkaloid ; also malic and citric acid, starch, resins, coloring-matter, etc.

Official Preparations.—Extractum Sanguinariæ, Fluidum, Tinctura Sanguinariæ.

etc.

STAPHISAGRIA, U. S.-Staphisagria. (Stavesacre.)—The seed of Delphinium Staphisagria, containing three alkaloids, delphinine, delphisine, and delphinoidine, also, staphisain, with fixed oil, protein compounds etc.

ACONITUM, U. S.-Aconite.—The tuberous root of Aconitum Napellus, containing aconitine, C33H43N012; isaconitine, C33H43 NO.12 ; pseudaconitine, C3611,9NO.1. Aconine, C26H39 NO11; and pseudaconine, C27H, NO3, are products of hydrolysis. Aconitic acid, H.CO. is present together with resin, sugar, fat, coloring matter, etc. Aconitic acid may be produced by heating citric acid to 155° C. (311° F.).

Official Preparations.-Extractum Aconiti, Extractum Aconiti Fluidum, Tinctura Aconiti.

HYDRASTIS, U. S.-Hydrastis. (Golden Seal.)—The rhizome and rootlets of Hydrastis canadensis, containing hydrastine, C2H23 NO6; berberine, C20H1,7NO,; xanthopuccine, sugar, starch, resin, coloring-matter,

Official Preparations.—Extractum Hydrastis Fluidum, Tinctura Hydrastis, Glyceritum Hydrastis.

HYDRASTININÆ HYDROCHLORAS, U. S.-Hydrastinine Hydrochlorate. CHNO,HCI; 224.97.—The hydrochlorate of an artificial alkaloid derived from hydrastine, the latter being a colorless alkaloid obtained from hydrastis. Light-yellow, amorphous granules, or a pale-yellow, crystalline powder; odorless, and having a bitter, saline taste; deliquescent on exposure to damp air; soluble at 15° C. (59° F.) in 0.3 part of water and in three parts of alcohol; difficultly soluble in ether or chloroform. Keep in well-stoppered vials.

MENISPERMUM, U. S. – Menispermum. ( Yellow Parilla, Canadian Moonseeil.)— The rhizome and rootlets of Menispermum canadense, containing menispine, berberine, resin, starch, tannin, coloring-matter, etc.

Official Preparation.-Extractum Menispermi Fluidum.

ASPIDOSPERMA, U. S.-Aspidosperma. (Quebracho — The bark of Aspidosperma-blanco. Contains aspidospermine, aspidospermatine, aspidosamine, quebrachine, hypoquebrachine, and quebrachamine.

Official Preparation.Extractum Aspidospermatis Fluidum.

GRANATUM, U. S.-Pomegranate.—The bark of the root of Punica Granatum, containing four alkaloids ; pelletierine, isopelletierine, methylpelletierine, pseudopelletierine. The first three are liquid, the latter solid and crystalline. The drug also contains punico-tannic acid, C20H16013, sugar, mannit, pectin. gum, etc.

PAREIRA, U. S.—Pareira. (Pareira Brava.) — The root of Chondodendron tomentosum, containing pelosine, or cissampeline, which is identical with buxine and berberine, alkaloids obtained from Buxus semper virens and Nectandra Rodiæi.

Official Preparation.Extractum Pareiræ Fluidum.

IPECACUANHA, U. S.-Ipecac.—The root of Cephaelis Ipecacu anha, containing emetine, C281140N,Oz, ipecacuanhic acid, pectin, starch, resin, sugar, etc.

Official Preparations. Extractum Ipecacuanhæ Fluidum, Trochisci Ipe.

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cacuanhæ, Trochisci Morphinæ et Ipecacuanhæ, Syrupus Ipecacuanhæ, Tinctura Ipecacuanhæ et Opii, Vinum Ipecacuanhæ, Pulvis Ipecacuanhæ et Opii.

COCA, U. S.—Coca. (Erythroxylon, Pharm. 1880.)—The leaves of Erythroxylon coca contain cocaine, C7H2, NO,, and hygrine combined with cocatannic acid.

Official Preparation.Extractum Cocæ Fluidum.

GUARANA, U. S.-Guarana.—A dried paste, consisting of the crushed or ground seeds of Paullinia sorbilis, containing caffeine, C H101,02, about 25 per cent. of tannin, resin, mucilage, starch, volatile oil, saponin, etc. Official Preparation.—Extractum Guaranæ Fluidum.

CAFFEINA, U. S.-Caffeine. C,H.NO, + 1,0; 211.68. (Theine).—A feeble basic proximate principle obtained from the dried leaves of Thea sinensis, or from the dried seeds of the Coffea arabica, and found also in other plants. Fleecy masses of flexible crystals, generally quite long, and of a silky lustre, odorless, bitter taste, neutral reaction, and permanent in the air.

Obtained from a decoction of tea or coffee by precipitating with lead acetate, removing the lead by H,S, adding NH HO, evaporating, and recrystallizing.

CAFFEINA CITRATA, U. S.—Citrated Caffeine.-A white powder; odorless; having a purely acid taste, and an acid reaction; prepared by adding caffeine to a solution of citric acid, evaporating and reducing the product to powder.

CAFFEINA CITRATA EFFERVESCENS, U. S.-Effervescent Citrated Caffeine.-An effervescing, coarse, granular powder, prepared by uniting together caffeine, citric acid, sodium bicarbonate, tartaric acid, and sugar, making a paste with alcohol, rubbing the same through a No. 6 tinned iron sieve or enameled colander, and drying the powder.

CONIUM, U. S.-Conium. (Hemlock.)—The full-grown fruit of Conium maculatum, gathered while yet green, and containing conine, CH, N; conhydrine, CH NO; and methylconine, C8H16CH,N; also a little volatile oil and fixed oil. Conium is a liquid volatile alkaloid, containing no oxygen, and with an odor resembling that of the urine of mice.

Official Preparations.—Extractum Conii, Extractum Conii Fluidum.

SCOPARIUS, U. S.-Scoparius. (Broom.)—The tops of Cytisus scoparius. Contains sparteine, a colorless liquid alkaloid which probably represents the diuretic and purgative action of the drug.

Official Preparation.Extractum Scoparii Fluidum.

SPARTEINÆ SULPHAS, U. S.—Sparteine Sulphate. C5H26N,H,SO. + 4H,0; 403.23.—The neutral sulphate of an alkaloid obtained from Scoparius ; colorless, white, prismatic crystals, or a granular powder ; odorless, and having a slightly saline and somewhat bitter taste. Liable to attract moisture when exposed to damp air. Very soluble in water and alcohol.

LOBELIA, U.S.-Lobelia.—The leaves and tops of Lobelia inflata. collected after a portion of the capsules have been inflated, contain lobeline, lobelic acid, lobelacrin, wax, resin, gum, etc. Lobeline is a liquid alkaloid, and contains no oxygen.

Official Preparations. ---Extractum Lobeliæ Fluidum, Tinctura Lobeliæ.

TABACUM, U. S.-Tobacco.—The commercial dried leaves of Nicotiana Tabacum, containing nicotine, C10H,N,, a liquid alkaloid, which is colorless, very acrid, poisonous, and rapidly turns brown on exposure to air; soluble in water, alcohol, and ether.

PRODUCTS FROM ANIMAL SUBSTANCES.

The animal products of pharmaceutical interest are not numerous, but some of them are very important. Their chemical composition is not very well understood.

Official Products Derived from the Class Mammalia. ADEPS, U. S.-Lard.—The prepared internal fat of the abdomen of Sus scrofa (Class, Mammalia, Order, Pachydermata), purified by washing with water, melting, and straining. Lard should be preserved in securely-closed vessels, impervious fat, and in a cool place. It is a soft, white, unctuous solid. It melts at 38° to 40° C. (100.4° to 104° F.) to a clear liquid, which is colorless in thin layers, which should not separate an aqueous layer, and at or below 30° C. (86° F.) it is a soft solid ; sp. gr. about 0.932; faint odor, free from rancidity ; bland taste; neutral reaction; entirely soluble in ether, benzin, and disulphide of carbon.

ADEPS BENZOINATUS, U. S.-Benzoinated Lard. (Ungüentum Benzoini, Pharm. 1870.)—Benzoin 20 Gm., Lard 1000 Gm.

ADEPS LANÆ HYDROŠUS, U. S.-Hydrous Wool-Fat.The purified fat of the wool of the sheep, Ovis aries, Linné (Class, Mammalia ; Order, Ruminantia), mixed with not more than 30 per cent. of

A yellowish-white, or nearly white, ointment-like mass, having a faint, peculiar odor. Insoluble in water, but miscible with twice its weight of the latter without losing its ointment-like character. It melts at about 40° C. (104° F.).

OLEUM ADIPIS, U. S.—Lard Oil.- A fixed oil expressed from lard at a low temperature.

SEVUM, U. S.-Suet.— The internal fat of the abdomen of Ovis aries (sheep) (Class, Mammalia.; Order, Ruminantia), purified by melting and straining. Suet should be kept in well-closed vessels impervious to fat. It should not be used after it has become rancid. It is a white, smooth, solid fat ; nearly inodorous, gradually becoming rancid on exposure to air; bland taste, neutral reaction.

PANCREATINUM, U. S.- Pancreatin.-A mixture of the enzymes naturally existing in the pancreas of warm-blooded animals, usually obtained from the fresh pancreas of the hog, Sus scrofa (Class, Mammalia ; Order, Pachydermata). A yellowish, yellowish-white, or grayish, amorphous powder, odorless, or having a faint, peculiar, not unpleasant

water.

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odor, and a somewhat meat-like taste. Slowly and almost completely soluble in water, insoluble in alcohol.

Pancreatin digests albuminoids, and converts starch into sugar.

PEPSINUM, U. S.-Pepsin.-A proteolytic ferment or enzyme obtained from the glandular layer of fresh stomachs from healthy pigs, and capable of digesting not less than 3000 times its own weight of freshly coagulated and disintegrated egg albumen, when tested by the process given below. A fine, white, or yellowish-white, amorphous powder, or thin, pale yellow or yellowish, transparent or translucent grains or scales, free from any offensive odor, and having a mildly acidulous or slightly saline taste, usually followed by a suggestion of bitterness. Soluble, or for the most part soluble, in about 100 parts of water, with more or less opalescence; more soluble in water, acidulated with hydrochloric acid; insoluble in alcohol, ether, or chloroform.

VALUATION OF PEPSIN.-Prepare first the three following solutions :

a. Water, 294 C.c.; HCI, 6 C.c. b. In 100 C.c. of A, dissolve 0.067 Gm. of the pepsin to be tested. c. To 95 C.c., sol. A, at 40° C. (104° F.) add 5 C.c. of sol. B. The resulting 100 C.c. of liquid will contain 0.2 C.c. (0.21 Gm.) of absolute HCI, 0.00335 Gm. of the pepsin to be tested, and 98 C.c. of water. Immerse an egg 15 m. in boiling water, remove, and place in cold water. When cold rub the albumen through a No. 30 sieve, reject the first portion, take 10 Gm. of the second cleaner portion, place it in a 200 C.c. flask; add |2 of sol. C., shake well

, add the second 12 of sol. C., shake well, place in a water-bath or thermostat at 30° to 40° C. (100.4° to 104° F.) for 6 hours, shaking gently every 15 minutes. At the expiration of this time the albumen should have disappeared, leaving at most only a few thin, insoluble flakes.

The relative proteolytic power of pepsin stronger or weaker than that described above may be determined by ascertaining, through repeated trials, how much of sol. B made up to 100 C.c. with sol. A will be required exactly to dissolve 10 Gm. of coagulated and disintegrated albumen under the conditions given above.

PEPSINUM SACCHARATUM, U.S.-Saccharated Pepsin.Pepsin, the digestive principle of the gastric juice, obtained from the mucous membrane of the stomach of the hog, and mixed with powdered sugar of milk.

Preparation.Prof. Scheffer's Process : Macerate mucous membranes of hogs' stomachs in very dilute HCl, precipitate pepsin with NaCl, skim, drain, dry, and dilute with sugar of milk until 0.67 Gm. will dissolve 300 times its own weight coagulated albumen. Saccharated pepsin is a white powder; slight, but not disagreeable odor; slight, but not disagreeable taste. It is not completely soluble in water, leaving floccules of pepsin floating in the solution, which, however, dissolve on the addition of a small quantity of hydrochloric acid.

MOSCHÚS, U. S.-Musk.—The dried secretion from the preputial follicles of Moschus moschiferus (Class, Mammalia ; Order, Ruminantia) contains cholesterin, ammonia, and acid principle, wax, fat, albuminous and gelatinous principles, and an odorous matter not yet determined.

Official Preparation. -Tinctura Moschi.

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