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of whatever worldly rank, as if of just as much consequence as himself; for he has not got it in him to speak in any other way. Indeed, knowing his own greater duties, and keenly alive to all that he is failing to do of what he sees he ought to do, he may, when speaking to a good factory boy, whose far simpler duties are, he believes, better done than his own more difficult ones, feel himself to be in the presence of his superior in God's sight; and he has learned to consider all things and all people according to the judgment of God, and not according to the opinion or respect of the world.
An unpretending good character is almost always a popular one when well known; and if one wanted to judge of James Hill's popularity among us, it was only necessary to watch the feeling of all towards him, when he was getting on well in any of our chief cricket matches, as he almost always did, perhaps through his very coolness and quietness. In our grand match of all, when we beat the old established club of regular cricketers, every one rejoiced that James Hill had more share than anyone else in gaining the victory— more share than anyone else in the kind encouragement, rather too personal and expressive to be very refined, which the strangers, who had managed to smuggle themselves into the ground, gave to the players; such as Go along, greasers!' and Aint them cocoa-nut chaps a pitchin' it into 'em l'
We may hope for more and more of this in our factory.
As the factory goes on from year to year with so many well-conducted, and many of them clever, youngsters growing up in it, and therefore knowing it thoroughly, and happily,-I may add, deeply attached to it, we shall, I trust, have more and more of this growing for itself its own foreman and others in authority. The perfection of this would be that when the Company has lasted long enough, if it should do so, for all of us of the present generation to die out, there should then be none in authority in it who had not begun life in its infant school, just as there is, I think, a law in force at Eton, that no one shall be an Eton master who had not been an Eton boy. It would, however, be wrong to let one's thoughts run much upon things so far off; only, the throwing out such a thought at all brings one back again to my brother George's point, of the enormous educational and moral importance of the mere right managing of a place,-showing no favour, no, not to one's own great-grandfather, if one could have him here, but treating all well, and bringing forward all who ought to be brought forward, and no one else whatever."
Take this passage following, as another specimen; it is addressed to the wives and mothers of those employed in the factory:
"I said that the last letter spoke to you, mothers of our boys, as much as to our boys themselves; also to you wives of our men, and to our girls. How do you suppose the poor mother felt when leaving her family, the eldest boy but four or five years old, to the care of a worthless drunken beggar? We cannot tell whether she was able, as some have been, even in as sad a case, to put her trust in God and still hope for the best; or whether she died, as many others,
even of the best, have died, almost hopeless and broken-hearted. Who could blame her much if, dying under such circumstances, she had lamented, like Jub, the day that she was born, and felt as if it would have been better for her never to have come into the world, than to have come into it only to give birth to children to be brought up so hopelessly, and so certain, according to all human appearances, to live a life of degradation and crime. But look how different the result was. One son was a missionary, another the Christian master of a large manufactory, and the amount of good which any one such master must do, in such a place as Manchester, will never be known until the day of judgment. Now, what was it that made things turn out so well at last, although beginning so wretchedly? Before answering this, I must just ask a question of those of you who have not yet become earnest in religion. You, most of you, if not all, say in Church, and by yourselves at home, some words which our Lord told us to say, and which we therefore call The Lord's Prayer.' Now, does it ever occur to you that there is a meaning in these words? If it does not, then this is just the difference between you and the mother of this manufacturer. When she knelt down and said, Thy Kingdom come,' she felt in her heart at the same time, a real earnest wish to God, that his Kingdom should come into her own heart, and into the hearts of her children. When, too, she read in her Bible other words of our Lord, such as, If ye shall ask any thing in my name, I will give it you,' Ask, and ye shall receive, that your joy may be full,'-she believed there was a meaning in these also. She knew that He who said them, was able to do what he said; and this made her go on asking the more earnestly what her heart was so set upon the coming of God's kingdom into the hearts of her children. God gave her what she asked, and God will give you the same, if you ask it in the same way, and if you, as she did, teach your children to ask it for themselves. Is it not sad that some of you, who are the best and most devoted mothers, for all that part of your children's lives which lies in this world, toiling the flesh off your bones, in your anxiety for their good, scrimping yourselves, when necessary, of food, rather than let them run shortshould yet seem to care nothing at all what is to become of them, in that much longer part of their life which is to be spent out of this world? For, if you neither pray for them nor teach them to pray for themselves, does not that show that you care for nothing that can be got by prayer? And yet you know that real religion can be got in no other way; and that, without real religion, there can be no hope for the next world. If you knew how hopeless a feeling comes over a master, or any one else trying to turn a boy right when nearly grown up, when he finds that the boy knows nothing about prayer, never having been taught to pray as a child-this would make you feel how wrong you have been. What makes it still more sad that you, who are so anxious for the good of your children, should yet be neglecting their greatest good, is, that each of you mothers and wives, is the one in the family who has the most advantages for prayer; so that God seems to be trusting to you to pray for the whole family. Your husband and your sons never can be
alone in the house, and must therefore pray as they can, without any quiet. But you, after your husband and sons are gone to work, have the house all to yourself and plenty of opportunity thus given you to kneel down, when there is only God to see you, and ask for every blessing you can think of for them and yourself. Read in the New Testament what our Lord said and did when He was on earth, and remember that whatever He was on earth He is now in heaven, and then think whether he will be slow to hear such prayers. I said you would be alone, but perhaps not; perhaps you will have the younger children about you. So much the better; if they see 'mother' on her knees, speaking to some one they cannot see, and very earnest about something, but they do not understand what; this will soon set them asking questions, and will be the best possible way of leading them into religion. And even if there is an elder daughter present, do not let this be a hindrance to you: get her to kneel down with you, and then you may expect the special blessing promised to two or three gathered together in our Lord's name. But you do not know what words to use. Just try, and you will find the words come fast enough. Did you ever find yourself short of words in telling your husband any of your difficulties or wants, for yourself or the children? God is more ready to hear and better able to understand, than your husband is ; and therefore He will not refuse any words which would do for your husband, if you try to put into them the same real feeling and hope that you have when you speak to your husband for anything. Ever so few and simple words will do to begin with, if only such as these: O God, I feel that I have not prayed for my husband and children as it was my duty to do, help me to begin now, for Jesus Christ's sake; and help me also to teach my children to pray.'
What is the occasion on which I am writing to you wives of our men, and mothers of our boys? It is at a time when many good things are about to be done to your husbands and sons. You know this, and are thankful for it. But do you know what all these good things spring from? If not I will tell you. They spring from a mother's prayer. A great many years ago, a boy of nine years' old was passing the door of his mother's room, and heard her speaking, and found that it was to God that she was speaking, to beg for blessings upon him. This was the beginning of true religion in that boy's heart, and he grew up to be a blessing to all about him, and to us also,; for he was Samuel Budgett, of Bristol,—and it is from his example that we have taken the good things now to be done in our Factory. Little could that mother tell, when she was kneeling alone before God, that, so many years afterwards, and at such a distance, hundreds would be rejoicing in things springing out of her prayers for her son; and little can you tell what blessings your children may be to the world, if you so pray for them as to get them made true Christians by God's power working in their hearts.
One word for our girls: the first I have ever said to you, and probably the last I may ever say. You have been reading what I have written to wives and mothers; but it is sad work to put off real prayer till you have become a wife and a mother; sad work first to be
married, and have children, and then to begin to think of God's blessing afterwards. I need not say any more; for you are in the hands of those who understand you better, and are better able to teach you, than I am. But this little hint may help you to feel the blessing of such teaching, and especially that part of it which would lead you to earnest prayer while you are yet only entering upon life. As I have been now writing to the female department of the Factory, it may be well, before going back to the males, to give an extract from at least one of the many letters which we have received from ladies, expressing the same delight as that expressed in the other letters, in what is going on amongst us. The letter I shall choose is from a lady whose opinion is worth having, because she lives in the heart of the factories of England, and has written upon them a book, which has done an immense deal towards opening the eyes of the manufacturers to the good which exists among factory workers. This Book, Mary Barton,' tells of the warmth of feeling, and the generosity, of working people towards each other; and shews therefore that any warmth of feeling and generosity shown towards them, by those above them in worldly position, will certainly be met by them at least half way. The author rejoices, as you will see, to find in our Factory a place in which this happy meeting has come about. The letter is dated from Manchester; and it is there that the scene of Mary Barton' is laid.
'I received your letter about an hour ago, and I now write these 'few lines in haste to say how glad and thankful I am for all done already; and how much I rejoice in all you propose to do. I am at this moment (writing without much reflection, but on the spur of feeling) particularly struck with all of No. 2 proposal-about the midsummer holiday. The Margate plan is admirable. Here, in 'Manchester, we see the evils of purposeless and mere pleasure trips so forcibly, that anything like a kind supervision, and the sanctity ' of home extending itself over the holidays, seem to me a great thing. The proposal, No. 6, of cooking arrangements for the men, &c., I know from experience (in Mr. North's factory, near Liverpool) to 'be a great gain, not merely as to comfort and economy, but to the 'steadiness of those employed. I like the proposal No. 7, for the 'place for Sunday reading in the open air. (I like all; but some strike me more from bearing more especially on evils which I have 'observed here.)
It comes in
I like the proposal of rewards rather than fines. curiously with what I heard last week from a great land agent, who 'told me that the old way of letting land with fines for every injury 'done to it, was so far less efficacious than what he adopted, of no 'fines, &c., but promised encouragement and reward for good 'cultivation. Then I like the Company paying the same amount to the sick-fund as the fine.
'But I have no right to take up more of your time, nor have I any time to spare, if this letter is to go to-night. I wish you a true and hearty God speed.'
When I said only one extract from ladies' letters, I really meant it; but, while the paper is being printed, and just in time for inser
tion, there has come to my father a letter which you must not be deprived of the pleasure of reading. It is from a lady who has been for months past warming the hearts of all England, as well as the hearts of her own country. It was written upon her receiving in America the Educational Report: and therefore of course it could not have any notice of our recent proceedings. It is dated Andover, Massachusetts, 2nd December, 1852.
Accept my thanks for the very interesting pamphlets you have 'sent to me. I am interested in every such movement in England, not only for England's sake, but for America's. The situation of the operatives in England has often been used-most illogically, it is true as an apology for a far worse system of things in this 'country. Every attempt, therefore, to improve the working classes in England, acts directly on the question of American slavery. I 'therefore wish all success to the benevolent exertions of your son, and of such as act with him. Very truly yours,
H. B. STOWE.'
Do not be surprised at the author of Uncle Tom's Cabin' naming English labour in the same breath as American slavery; for if we, London factory workers, can happily see no likeness at all between the two, there are, in other parts of England, and indeed there are in London itself, if not in its factories, states of things so bad, that one would almost doubt if anything in the world can be worse. 'Uncle Tom's Cabin' shows how all the best feelings of human beings may be torn and trampled upon. I am afraid we can show in England human beings who have not their good feelings trampled upon, only because they have been so treated from their birth that there seems to be scarcely any human feeling left in them. Which is the worst state of the two? However, American slavery does, this last also sometimes, I suppose, as much as anything in England; so, though we are bad enough, we may have at least the poor comfort of being not quite so bad as we should be with slavery among us."
With a friend, and guide, and employer such as this, it cannot be supposed that patriotism finds no place in the bosoms of the workmen. The Company agreed to give £300 to the Patriotie Fund, and the Messrs Wilson promised that the workers would contribute a like sum-but how? Mr Wilson thus, in a letter to Mr. Charles Ranken, Chairman of the Company, thus informs us :
"This day week what we longed for happened; for on that day the thought struck one of us, that the large lanterns with which we have now for a good while past supplied the Government Emigrant ships might be turned to great use in the tents and huts of the Crimea. They give a strong, steady light-may be hung up in a gale of wind without being blown out-are not liable to break, and can be turned by a few slight alterations easily made in them, and which we have since made, into a cooking apparatus, such as will in half an hour bake a piece of meat, or boil a pint of water.
From the Board one of us went to the Managers of the Crimean