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he said to it? 'O,' said he in answer, 'the bear understood me very well; did you not observe how ashamed he looked while I was upbraiding him?'” Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. I. p. 240.

Note 14, p. 182.-" Hush! the Naked Bear will get thee!"-Heckewelder, in a letter published in the Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. IV. p. 260, speaks of this tradition as prevalent among the Mohicans and Delawares.

“ Their reports,” he says, "run thus: that among all animals that have been formerly in this country, this was the most ferocious: that it was much larger than the largest of the common bears, and remarkably long-bodied; all over (except a spot of hair on its back, of a white colour), naked .

" The history of this animal used to be a subject of conversation among the Indians, especially when in the woods a-hunting. I have also heard them say to their children when crying : ‘Hush! the naked bear will hear you,


upon you, and devour you.'

Note 15, p. 221.-"Sand Hills of the Nagow Wudjoo."-A description of the Grand Sable, or great sand dunes of Lake Superior, is given in Foster and Whitney's Report on the Geology of the Lake Superior Land District, Part II. p. 131.

"The Grand Sable possesses a scenic interest little inferior to that of the Pictured Rocks. The explorer passes abruptly from a coast of consolidated sand to one of loose materials; and although in the one case the cliffs are less precipitous, yet in the other they attain a higher altitude. He sees before him a long reach of coast, resembling a vast sand-bank, more than three hundred and fifty feet in height, without a trace of vegetation. Ascending to the top, rounded hillocks of blown sand are observed, with occasional clumps of trees, standing out like oases in the desert."

Note 16, p. 223.—"Or the Red Swan floating, flying:"-The fanciful tradition of the Red Swan may be found in Schoolcraft's Ålgic Researches, Vol. II. p. 9. Three brothers were hunting on a wager to see who would bring home the first game.

"They were to shoot no other animal," so the legend says, “but such as each was in the habit of killing. They set out different ways: Odjibwa, the youngest, had not gone far before he saw a bear, an animal he was not to kill, by the agreement He followed him close, and drove an arrow through him, which brought him to the ground. Although contrary to the bet, he immediately commenced skinning him, when suddenly something red tinged all the air around him. He rubbed his eyes, thinking he was perhaps deceived ; but without effect, for the red hue continued. At length he heard a strange noise at a distance. It first appeared like a human voice, but after following the sound for some distance, he reached the shores of a lake, and soon saw the object he was looking for. At a distance out in the lake sat a most beautiful Red Swan, whose plumage glittered in the sun, and who would now and then make the same noise he had heard. He was within long bow-shot, and, pulling the arrow from the bow-string up to his car, took deliberate aim and shot. The arrow took no effect; and he shot and shot again, till his quiver was empty. Still the swan remained, moving round and round, stretching its long neck, and dipping its bill into the water, as if heedless of the arrows shot at it. Odjibwa ran home, and got all his own and his brothers' arrows, and shot them all away. He then stood and gazed at the beautiful bird. While standing, he remembered his brothers saying that in their deceased father's medicine-sack were three magic arrows. Off he started, his anxiety to kill the swan overcoming all scruples. At any other time he would have deemed it sacrilege to open his father's mcdicine-sack; but now he hastily seized the three arrows and ran back, leaving the other contents of the sack scattered over the lodge. The swan was still there. He shot the first arrow with great precision, and came very near to it. The second came still closer; as he took the last arrow, he felt his arm firmer, and drawing it up with vigour, saw it pass through the neck of the swan, a little above the breast. Still it did not prevent the bird from flying off, which it did, however, at first slowly, flapping its wings, and rising gradually into the air, and then flying off toward the sinking of the sun." — Pp. 10-12. Note 17, p. 231.—Sing the mysteries of Mondamın,"— The Indians hold :-.

the maize, or Indian corn, in great veneration. “They esteem it so important and divine a grain," says Schoolcraft, “that their story-tellers invented various tales, in which this idea is symbolised under the form of a special gift from the Great Spirit. The Odjibwa-Algonquins, who call it Mon-da-min, that is, the Spirit's grain or berry, have a pretty story of this kind, in which the stalk, in full tassel, is represented as descending from the sky, under the guise of a handsome youth, in answer to the prayers of a young man at his fast of virility, or coming to manhood.

"It is well known that corn-planting, and corn-gathering, at least among all the still uncolonizeit tribes, are left entirely to the females and children, and a few superannuated old men. It is not generally known, perhaps, that this labour is not compulsory, and that it is assumed by the females as a just equi. valent, in their view, for the onerous and continuous labour of the other sex, in providing meats, and skins for clothing, by the chase, and in defending their villages against their enemies, and keeping intruders off their territories. A good Indian housewife deems this a part of her prerogative, and prides herself to have a store of corn to exercise her hospitality, or duly honour her husband's hospitality, in the entertainment of the lodge guests."--Oneóta, p. 82.

Note 18, p. 232.--" Thus the fields shall be more fruitful._"A singular proof of this belief, in both sexes, of the mysterious influence of the steps of a woman on the vegetable and insect creation, is found in an ancient custom, which was related to me, respecting corn-planting. It was the practice of the hunter's wife, when the field of corn had been planted, to choose the first dark or overclouded evening to perform a secret circuit, sans habilement, around the field. For this purpose she slipped out of the lodge in the evening, unobserved, to some obsure nook, where she completely disrobed. Then, taking her matchecota, or principal garment, in one hand, she dragged it around the

field. This was thought to ensure a prolific crop, and to prevent the assaults of insects and worms upon the grain. It was supposed they could not creep over the charmed line."-Oncóta, p. 83. Note 19, p. 235.-"Wagemin, the thief of corn-fields,

Paimosaid, the skulking robber." “If one of the young female huskers finds å red ear of corn, it is typical of a brave admirer, and is regarded as a fitting present to some young warrior. But if the car be crooked, and tapering to a point, no matter what colour, the whole circle is set in a roar, and war-ge-min is the word shouted aloud. It is the symbol of a thief in the corn-field. It is considered as the image of an old man stooping as he enters the lot. Had the chisel of Praxiteles been employed to produce this image, it could not more vividly bring to the minds of the merry group the idea of a pilferer of their favourite mondamin.

• The literal meaning of the term is, a mass, or crooked ear of grain ; but the ear of corn so-called is a conventional type of a little old man pilfering ears of corn in a corn-field. It is in this manner that a single word or term, in these curious languages, becomes the fruitful parent of many ideas. And we can thus perceive why it is that the word wagemin is alone competent to excite merriment in the husking circle.

“This term is taken as the basis of the cereal chorus or corn-song, as sung by the Northern Algonquin tribes. It is coupled with the phrase Paimosnid -a permutative form of the Indian substantive, made from the verb pim-o-sa, to walk. Its literal meaning is, he who walks, or the walker; but the ideas conveyed by it are, he who walks by night to pilfer corn. It offers, therefore, a kind of parallelism in expression to the preceding term."-Onešta, p. 254.

Note 20, p. 244.-" Pugasaing, with thirteen pieces."_This Game of the Bowl is the principal game of hazard among the Northern tribes of Indians. Mr Schoolcraft gives a particular account of it in Oneóta, p. 85._* This game,

is very fascinating to some portions of the Indians. They stake at it their ornaments, weapons, clothing, canoes, horses, everything in fact they possess; and have been known, it is said, to set up their wives and children, and even to forfeit their own liberty. Of such desperate stakes I have seen no examples, nor do I think the game itself in common use. It is rather confined to certain persons who hold the relative rank of gamblers in Indian society, men who are not noted as hunters, or warriors, or steady providers for their families. Among these are persons who bear the term of Tenadizze-wug, that is, wanderers about the country, braggadocios, or sops. It can hardly be



he says,


classed with the popular games of amusement by which skill and dexterity are acquired. I have generally found the chiefs and graver men of the tribes, who encouraged the young men to play ball, and are sure to be present at the customary sports, to witness, and sanction, and applaud them, speak lightly and disparagingly of this game of hazard. Yet it cannot be denied that some of the chiefs distinguished in war and the chase, at the West, can be referred to as lending their example to its fascinating power." See also his History, Condition, and Prospects of the Indian Tribes, Part

II. p. 72.

Note 21, p. 254.-" To the Pictured Rocks of sandstone."— The reader will find a long description of the pictured Rocks in Foster and Whitney's Report on the Geology of the Lake Superior Land District, Part II. p. 124. From this I make the following extract:

" The Pictured Rocks may be described, in general terms, as a series of sandstone bluffs, extending along the shore of Lake Superior for about five miles, and rising, in most places, vertically from the water, without any beach at the base, to a height varying from fifty to nearly two hundred feet. Were they simply a line of chiffs, they might not, so far as relates to height or extent, be worthy of a rank among great natural curiosities, although such an assemblage of rocky strata, washed by the waves of the great lake, would not under any circumstances be destitute of grandeur. To the voyager, coasting along their base in his frail canoe, they would, at all times, be an object of dread: the recoil of the surf, the rock-bound coast, affording, for miles, no place of refuge,-the lowering sky, the rising wind,--all these would excite liis apprehension, and induce him to ply a vigorous oar until the dreaded wall was passed. But in the Pictured Rocks there are two features which com. municate to the scenery a wonderful and almost unique character. These are, first, the curious manner in which the cliffs have been excavated and worn away by the action of the lake, which, for centuries, has dashed an ocean-lıke surf against their base; and, second, the equally curious manner in which large portions of the surface have been coloured by bands of brilliant hues.

“It is from the latter circumstance that the name by which these cliffs are known to the American traveller is derived; while that applied to them by the French voyageurs ! Les Portails') is derived from the former, and by far the most striking peculiarity.

“The term Pictured Rocks has been in use for a great length of time : but when it was first applied, we have been unable to discover. It would seem that the first travellers were more impressed with the novel and striking distribution of colours on the surface than with the astonishing variety of form into which the cliffs themselves have been worn. ..

Our voyageurs had many legends to relate of the pranks of the Mennibajou in these caverns; and, in answer to our inquiries, seemed disposed to fabricate stories, without end, of the achievements of this Indian deity.'

Note 22, p. 449.-"All the Foresters of Flanders." -The title of Foresters was given to the early governors of Flanders, appointed by the kings of France. Lyderick du Bucq, in the days of Clotaire the Second, was the first of them; and Beaudoin Bas-de-Fer, who stole away the fair Judith, daughter of Charles the Bald, from the French court, and married her in Bruges, was the last. After him the title of Forester was changed to that of Count. Philippe d'Alsace, Guy de Dampierre, and Louis de Crécy, coming later in the order of time, were therefore rather Counts than Foresters. Philippe went twice to the Holy Land as a Crusader, and died of the plague at St Jean-d'Acre, shortly after the cap. ture of the City by the Christians. Guy de Dampierre died in the prison of Compiègne. Louis de Crécy was son and successor of Robert de Bethune, who strangled his wife, Yolande de Bourgogne, with the bridle of his horse, for having poisoned, at the age of eleven years, Charles, his son by his first wife, Blanche d'Anjou.

Note 23, p. 449. -"Stately dames, like queens attended."-When Philippe. le-Bel, king of France, visited Flanders with his queen, she was so astonished at the magnificence of the dames of Bruges, that she exclaimed,- Je croyais être seule reine ici, mais il paraît que ceux de Flandre qui se trouvent dans nos prisons sont tous des princes, car leurs femmes sont habilées comme des princesses el des reines."

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When the burgomasters of Ghent, Bruges, and Ypres went to Paris to pay homage to King John, in 1351, they were received with great pomp and distinction ; but, being invited to a festival, they observed that their seats at table were not furnished with cushions; whereupon, to make known their displeasure at this want of regard to their dignity, they folded their richly embroidered cloaks and seated themselves upon them. On rising from the table, they left their cloaks behind them, and being informed of their apparent forgetsulness, Simon van Eertrycke, burgomaster of Bruges, replied, "We Flemings are not in the habit of carrying away our cushions after dinner.'

Note 24, p. 449.-"I beheld the gentle Mary.”-Marie de Valois, Duchess of Burgundy, was left by the death of her father, Charles-le-Téméraire, at the age of twenty, the richest heiress of Europe. She came to Bruges, as Countess of Flanders, in 1477, and in the same year was married by proxy to the Archduke Maximilian. According to the custom of the time, the Duke of Bavaria, Maximilian's substitute, slept with the princess. They were both in complete dress, separated by a naked sword, and attended by four armed guards. "Marie was adored by her subjects for her gentleness and her many other virtues.

Maximilian was son of the Emperor Frederick the Third, and is the same person mentioned afterwards in the poem of Nuremberg as the Kaiser Maximilian, and the hero of Pfinzing's poem of Teuerdank. Having been imprisoned by the revolted burghers of Bruges, they refused to release him, till he consented to kneel in the public square, and to swear on the Holy Evangelists and the body of St Donatus, that he would not take vengeance upon them for their rebellion.


Note 25, P. 449:-." The bloody battle of the Spurs of Gold."— This battle, the most memorable in Flemish history, was fought under the walls of Courtray, on the aith of July, 1302, between the French and the Flemings, the former commanded by Robert, Comte d'Artois, and the latter by Guillaume de Juliers, and Jean, Comte de Namur. The French army was completely routed, with a loss of twenty thousand infantry, and seven thousand cavalry : among whom were sixty-three princes, dukes, and counts, seven hundred lords-banneret, and eleven hundred noblemen. The flower of the French nobility perished on that day, to which history has given the name of the Journée des Eperons d'Or, from the great number of golden spurs found on the field of battle. Seven hundred of them were hung up as a trophy in the church of Notre Dame de Courtray; and, as the cavaliers of that day wore but a single spur each, these vouched to God for the violent and bloody death of seven hundred of his creatures.

Note 26, p. 449:-."'Saw the fight at Minnewater."—When the inhabitants of Bruges were digging a canal at Minnewater, to bring the waters of the Lys from Deynze to their city, they were attacked and routed by the citizens of Ghent, whose commerce would have been much injured by the canal. They were led by Jean Lyons, captain of a military company at Ghent, called the Chaperons Blancs. He had great sway over the turbulent populace, who in those prosperous times of the city gained an easy livelihood Ly labouring two or three days in the weck, and had ihe remaining four or five to devote to public affairs. The fight at Minnewater was followed by open rebellion against Louis de Maele, the Count of Flanders and Protector of Bruges. His superb chateau of Wondelghem was pillaged and burnt: and the insurgents forced the gates of Bruges, and entered in triumph, with Lyons mounted at their head. A few days afterwards he died suddenly, perhaps by poison.

Meanwhile the insurgents received a check at the village of Nevèle, and two hundred of them perished in the church, which was burned by the Count's orders, One of the chiefs, Jean de Lannoy, took refuge in the belsry. From the summit of the tower he held forth his purse filled with gold, and begged deliverance. It was in vain. His enemies cried from below to save himself as best he might; and, half-suffocated with smoke and flame, he threw himself from the tower, and perished at their feet.

Peace was soon afterwards established, and the Count retired to faithful Bruges.

Note 27, p. 545.-Nils Juel was a celebrated Danish Admiral, and Peter Wessel a Vice-Admiral, who for his great prowess received the popular title of Tordenskiold, or Thunder-shield. In childhood he was a tailor's apprentice, and rose to his higher rank before the age of twenty-eight, when he was killed in a duel.


Note 28, p. 567:—" The Blind Girl of Castil-Cuillè."— The following description of Jasmin, the author of this beautiful poem, is taken from the graphic pages of Béarn and the Pyrenees, by Louisa Stuart Costello :

At the entrance of the promenade Du Gravier is a row of small housessome cafés, other shops, the indication of which is a painted cloth placed across the way, with the owner's name in bright gold letters, in the manner of the arcades in the streets, and their announcements. One of the most glaring of these was, we observed, a bright blue flag, bordered with gold : on which, in large gold letters, appeared the name of Jasmin, Coiffeur.' We entered, and were welcomed by a smiling, dark-eyed woman, who informed us that her hus. band was busy at that moment dressing a customer's hair, but he was desirous to receive us, and begged we would walk into his parlour at the back of the shop:

"She exhibited to us a laurel crown of gold, of delicate workmanship, sent from the city of Clemence Isaure, Toulouse, to the poet, who will probably one day take his place in the capitoul. Next came a golden cup, with an inscription in his honour, given by the citizens of Auch ; a gold watch, chain, and seals, sent by the king, Louis Philippe ; an emerald ring, worn and presented by the lamented Duke of Orleans; a pearl pin, by the graceful Duchess, who, on the poet's visit to Paris, accompanied by his son, received him in the words he puts into the mouth of Henri Quatre :

* Brabes Gascous !
A moun amou per bous aou dibes creyre;
Benes! benès! ey plazé de bous beyre;

Aproucha bous !' -a fine service of linen, the offering of the town of Pau, after its citizens had given fêics in his honour, and loaded him with caresses and praises ; and nicknacks and jewels of all descriptions, offered to him by lady-ambassadresses and great lords, English ‘misses' and 'miladis,' and French and foreigners of all nations who did or did not understand Gascon.

“All this, though startling, was not convincing: Jasmin, the barber, might only be a fashion, a furore, a caprice, after all; and it was evident that he knew how to get up a scene well. When we had become nearly tired of looking over these tributes to his genius, the door opened, and the poet himself appeared. His manner was free and unembarrassed, well-bred and lively: he received our compliments naturally, and like one accustomed to homage ; said he was ill and unfortunately too hoarse to read anything to us, or should have been delighted to do so. He spoke with a broad Gascon accent, and very rapidly and eloquently; ran over the story of his successes; told us that his grandfather had been a beggar, and all his family very poor ; that he was now as rich as he wished to be ; his son placed in a good position at Nantes. Then he showed us his son's picture, and spoke of his disposition; to which his brisk little wife added, that, though no fool, he had not his father's genius; to which truth Jasmin assented as a matter of course. I told him of having seen mention made of him in an English review, which he said had been sent him by Lord Durham, who had paid him a visit ; and I then spoke of 'Me cal mouri' as known to me. This was enough to make him forget his hoarseness and every other evil; it would never do for me to imagine that that little song was his best composition ; it was merely his first : he must try to read to me a little of 'L'Abuglo,'-a few verses of ‘Françouneto ;'-'You will be charmed,' said he ; 'but if I were well, and you would give me the pleasure of your company for some time, if you were not merely running through Agen, I would kill you with weeping, - I would make you die with distress for my poor Margarido, my pretty Franfouneto!'

"He caught up two copies of his book from a pile lying on the table, and making us sit close to him, he pointed out the French translation on one side, which he told us to follow while he read in Gascon. He began in a rich, soft voice, and as he advanced, the surprise of Hamlet on hearing the player-king recite the disasters of Hecuba was but a type of ours, to find ourselves carried away by the spell of his enthusiasm. His eyes swam in tcars ; he became pale and red; he trembled : he recovered himself; his face was now joyous, now exulting, gay, jocose; in fact, he was twenty actors in one ; he rang the changes from Rachel to Bouffé ; and he finished by delighting us, besides beguiling us of our tears, and overwhelming us with astonishment.

“He would have been a treasure on the stage ; for he is still, though his first youth is past, remarkably good-looking and striking; with black, sparkling

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