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bleeding, groaning, expiring slaves; all raw with fresh wounds; wounds filled with pepper and salt to encrease their agony, already greater than humanity can bear! See some castrated; others having their ears cut off, and forced to eat them; and others burnt alive ; having their feet exposed to a slow fire, which, by degrees, consumes the whole body!

But where, and by whom, are such enormous barbarities perpetrated ? Among the furies and fiends of the infernal regions ? No, no; but in a part of our world; and, which is more, a part of it that has assumed the name of Christendom; and by men called Christian. Christian! say not so. A cruel Christian is a contradiction; nay, the first-born of absurdities. Is not genuine Christianity, in its nature and effects, mildness in itself? It doubtless is ; and, therefore, the pretensions of such persons to Christianity must be extremely preposterous and absurd. But, why are not the above, and thousands of similar enormities, remedied; speedily and effectually remedied? It certainly is within the power of the British parliament to do this. And they certainly are indispensibly bound to do it. Religion, humanity, policy, and every thing else, call loudly upon them to do it. Has the island of Great Britain, by its

constitution civil and ecclesiastical, its advantages natural and artificial, become famous from the northern to the southern pole, and from the castern verge of Asia to the western boundary of America ? And can it overlook such palpable violations of religion and humanity? It may seem impossible. But the melancholy truth will not admit of a denial. Blush, o king, blush both houses of parliament, blush O nation.* By tolerating such a gross violation of the essential rights of humanity, you expose yourselves not only to the sport of devils, and the indignation of all good men; but, which is the most tremendous of all

It is with pleasure the author reflects, that in different ages, and at different periods, humane and philanthrophic individuals have come forward, in spight of persecution, and vindicated the natural rights of the exiled, wretched sons of Africa. To gratify the benevolent feelings of the reader, and in compliance with the dictates of his own, the author embraces this opportunity of transmitting some of their names to posterity, for admiration and imitation :- First, he would particularize the name of Bartholomew de la Casas, bishop of Chiapa, who distinguished himself in the 15th century in this noble cause; also, Morgan Goodwin, John Woolman, Anthony Benezet, and many others, respectable mem. bers of the society called Quakers ;-likewise, Mr. Grenville Sharp, the Rev. James Ramsay, and the Rev. Thomas Clarkson. He would here offer a tribute of praise due to those worthy charac. ters, but the approbation of heaven and their own consciences is capable of rendering them more real pleasure than is in the power of human eulogium to give.

considerations, to the severest judgments heaven can inflict. May your repentance and reformation be speedy! May the infliction of impending judgments be happily prevented! To me and to all the friends of humanity, a pleasing prospect opens; a period approaches, in which tyranny of every kind shall cease ; nations and individuals shall cease to oppress; neither the crowned despot, nor the petty tyrant shall oppress any more. Auspicious period! May it speedily arrive!

CHAP. IV.

The Treatment of Slaves in the Dutch Settlements,

THE Dutch mode of treating the slaves in their colonies coincides, in many particulars, with the English. It is not more mild; but, alas, still more sanguinary and cruel. Their principal settlements in the West-Indies I have visited ; and, therefore, can speak with certainty. In the Dutch settlements, as well as other European colonies, offences, on the one hand, and, on the other, punishments, are distributed into two classes; ordinary and extraordinary. Offences, called ordinary, are such as these—neglect of orders, absence from work, stealing food, eating the sugarcane, breaking a plate, looking with displeasure or contempt at the tyrant, their master. For such offences the ordinary punishments are,-flogging with a cart-whip; beating with a stick; the breaking of bones; a heavy chain, tying two or three together; a large iron ring round the ankle ; an iron collar, with prongs, round the neck; confinement in a dungeon; slitting the ears ; breaking the limbs, so as to render amputation necessary; beating out the eyes; castration ; &c. In Surinam they have a method of flogging the slaves, which seems to be of infernal origin ; and certainly is a master-piece of diabolical barbarity. They tie the wrists of the culprit tight, press his knees together; his bound arms he is obliged to put round his knees; then a long stick is put through behind his knees, and one end of it fastened in the ground. In this situation he can nei. ther move hand nor feet. In this manner have I often seen the wretched slaves flogged till their wounds were an inch deep; and they were unable to move for a whole month. Another most barbarous practice in these colonies is this one hand of the slave is tied to one tree, and the other to onother tree, so high that his toes can barely touch the ground. While he is suspended in this manner, two unfeeling wretches, as executioners, stand, the one on his right hand, and the other on his left; each having a whip in his hand, with which they alternately lash him, till he is, in a manner hardly to be conceived, cut from head to foot. Such are the barbarities and cruelties, which those devils in human form, the proprietors and managers of slaves in the Dutch settlements, commit. Execrable monsters! Hated are they of God, of angels, and of all good men. Heaven rejects, and has already began to repay them; the earth, no longer able to bear, spues them out. Whither can they flee for safety? Methinks I see the bottomless pit opening its mouth to receive them.

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