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and south of the city and cover all approaches. None of the force was to enter the walled city. After carrying the first line of the Spanish entrenchments and fort, the advance columns of Greene's Brigade moved forward toward the
city and deployed from the Calle Real, the 18th Infantry and the 3d Artillery to the right, and, moving against the Spanish trenches back of the first line, uncovered the forces in the thick woods and brush
and marsh. The 1st California and
the 1st Colorado For use of vaults in cemeteries in Manila, a certain rental fee is charged, and when this is not paid by the estate or friends of the occupant he is taken out and left in the held positions manner shown.
covering the Calle Real barricades and thence to the shore line west. In this way they moved up to Malate, where the force was reformed in the open square about Malate church. Up to this time the advancing column had met sharp random firing from the enemy, much of it coming from the houses and places of cover, which the Californias and those exposed routed, often by assault. Reforming, the 18th Inf. and the 1st California were to move through the main streets, the 1st Colorado in the parallel streets on the right and the 1st Nebraska along the beach. The Callao kept slightly in advance in the bay and in position to rake all lines of trenches in advance of the moving columns. The 3d Art, and the 10th Pennsylvania occupied the reserve. The Pennsylvanians had been in the trench for twenty-four hours, but were pressing hard for an advance position. Desultory firing met this advance, and when the open near the Luneta was reached, the firing was sharp from the right.
THE FALL OF THE CITY.
At this time the white flag was flying from the southwest bastion of the city wall. Some of the insurgents had gone through by some of the approaches at Paco, and it was thought the firing came from them. There were now several thousand Spanish regulars within the city walls, and no firing came from any of this body. The day's work was done. What remained to be done was to take and hold possession of the approaches to the city and distribute the forces according to previous instructions. The capitulation was now going on.
After hoisting the white flag, the Spaniards signaled for a conference. FlagLieutenant Brumby and Lieutenant-Colonel Whittier, representing the army and
navy, were despatched in response to this, and the preliminary terms of surrender were arranged between them and Captain-General Augustin, Acting GovernorGeneral Jaudenes and Admiral Montejo. This occurred in the City Hall.
Gen. Merritt, on the return of the American representatives, went ashore to the City Hall with escort of the 2d Oregon. Two other battalions of the Oregon followed and took position in front of the Government Building at 2:36 P. M.
On return of Lieut. Brumby to the flagship with the preliminary terms of surrender, Admiral Dewey hoisted the signal, “Enemy has surrendered.” some modification, the preliminary terms as drawn were signed, and the Spanish flag hauled down and replaced with the Stars and Stripes. The following are the articles of capitulation:
ARTICLES OF CAPITULATION. The undersigned, having been appointed a commission to determine the details of the surrender of the city and defenses of Manila and its suburbs, and the Spanish forces stationed therein, in accordance with agreement entered into the previous day by Major-General Wesley Merritt, U. S. A., American Commander-in-Chief in the Philippines, and His Excellency Don Fermin Jaudenes, Acting General-in-Chief of the Spanish army in the Philippines, have agreed upon the following:
1. The Spanish troops, European and native, capitulate, with the city and defenses, with all honors of war, depositing their arms in the places designated by the authorities of the United States and remaining in the quarters designated and under the orders of their officers and subject to the control of the aforesaid United States authorities until the conclusion of a treaty of peace between the two belligerent nations. All persons included in the capitulation remain at liberty, the officers remaining in their homes, which shall be respected as long as they observe the regulations prescribed for their government and the laws in force.
2. Officers shall retain their side arms, horses, and private property. All public horses, and public property of all kinds, shall be turned over to staff officers designated by the United States.
3. Complete returns, in duplicate, of men by organizations, and full lists of public property and stores shall be rendered to the United States within ten days from this date.
4. All questions relating to the repatriation of officers and men of the Spanish forces and of their families and of the expenses which said repatriation may occasion, shall be referred to the government of the United States at Washington. Spanish families may leave Manila at any time convenient to them. The return of the arms surrendered by the Spanish forces shall take place when they evacuate the city, or when the American army evacuates.
5. Officers and men included in the capitulation shall be supplied by the United States, according to their rajk, with rations and necessary aid, as though they were prisoners of war, until the conclusion of the treaty of peace between the United States and Spain. All the funds of the Spanish treasury and all other public funds shall be turned over to the authorities of the United States.
6. This city, its inhabitants, its churches and religious worship, its educational establishments, and its private property of all descriptions, are placed under the special safeguard of the faith and honor of the American army.
F. V. GREENE, Brigadier-General of Volunteers, U. S. A.
By the capture of Manila, there was surrendered to our command about 5600* prisoners, 22,000 small arms, 10,000,000 rounds of ammunition, 70 pieces of modern artillery of various calibers and several hundred ancient bronze pieces, and $900,000 of public money, besides the city and fortifications.
The day previous to the capture, the protocol of peace between Spain and the United States had been signed at Washington.
* There seems to be some uncertainty about the number of Spanish troops surrendered with the city. We have been able to find no official report. If, as stated on page 82, Gen. Greene gave 13,000 as the number, he must have included prisoners in the hands of insurgents. The figures in the list are those of Mr. Foreman, who appears to have had access to official records.
FROM THE CAPTURE OF MANILA TO THE REVOLT
OF THE FILIPINOS.
HE situation in Manila at the time of the capitulation was
chaotic. Civil government was disrupted and the only law in force was military law. It is remarkable with what celerity the military authorities brought order out of confusion, so that within a few days a system of government was established, as effective as that which obtains in most of our large cities. From the hour of surrender, there was not a hostile demonstration against the American army. The Spaniards, whatever their regret for the defeat of their arms, were ready to co-operate
heartily in establishing and maintaining order. For twenty-four hours, and until it suited the pleasure of the Americans to disarm them, they held their positions with their guns. The great batteries on the Luneta were still in their possession, and Admiral Dewey next day sent Lieut. Calkins ashore to learn the situation, fearing that there might be some danger unforseen, his attention having been directed to these batteries, and Lieut. Calkins still finding the Spaniards in possession, he took from the guns the breech-plugs and brought them to the ship. In the eastern part of the city, the next day still found the Spaniards on duty, and, upon their notifying the American commander that they could not hold their positions against the insurgents, were relieved by the Americans and ordered to surrender their arms. So universal within the city was the feeling that order would be maintained, that within two days business was generally resumed.
The disturbing force was far less in the city proper than in its surroundings, and the danger was not from the Spaniards within, but the insurgents without. On the 14th of August, the day the capitulation was signed, Gen. Merritt issued the following proclamation:
PROCLAMATION OF GEN. MERRITT.
MANILA, August 14, 1898. To The PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES:
1. War has existed between the United States and Spain since April 21st of this year. Since that date you have witnessed the destruction by an American fleet of the Spanish naval power in these islands, the fall of the principal city, Manila, and its defenses, and the surrender of the Spanish army of occupation to the forces of the United States.
2. The Commander of the United States forces now in possession has instructions from his government to assure the people that he has not come to wage war upon them, nor upon any party or faction among them, but to protect them in their homes, in their employments, and in their personal and religious rights. All persons who, by active aid or honest submission, co-operate with the United States in its effort to give effect to this beneficent purpose, will receive the reward of its support and protection.
3. The government established among you by the United States army is a government of military occupation, and for the present it is ordered that the municipal laws, such as affect private rights of persons and property, regulate local institutions, and provide for the punishment of crime, shall be considered as continuing in force, so far as compatible with the purposes of military government, and that they may be administered through the ordinary tribunals substantially as before occupation, but by officials appointed by the government of occupation.
4. A Provost Marshal-General will be appointed for the city of Manila and its outlying districts. This territory will be divided into sub-districts, and there will be assigned to each a Deputy Provost Marshal. The duties of the Provost Marshal-General and his deputies will be set forth in detail in future orders. In a general way, they are charged with the duty of making arrests of military, as well as civil offenders, sending such of the former class as are triable by court martial to their proper commands, with statements of their offenses and names of witnesses, and detaining in custody all other offenders for trial by military commission, provost courts or native criminal courts, in accordance with law and the instructions hereafter to be issued.
5. The port of Manila, and all other ports and places in the Philippines which may be in actual possession of our land and naval forces, will be open, while our military occupation may
continue, to the commerce of all neutral nations, as well as our own, in articles not contraband of war, and upon payment of the prescribed rates of duty which may be in force at the time of the importation.
6. All churches and places devoted to religious worship and to the arts and sciences, all educational institutions, libraries, scientific collections and museums, are, so far as possible, to be protected, and all destruction or intentional defacement of such places or property, of historical monuments, archives or works of science, is prohibited, save when required by urgent military necessity. Severe punishment will be meted out for all violations of this regulation.
The custodians of all properties of the character mentioned in this section will make prompt returns thereof to these headquarters, stating character and location, and embodying such recommendations as they may think proper for the full protection of the properties under their care and custody, that proper orders may issue enjoining the co-operation of both military and civil authorities in securing such protection.
7. The commanding general, in announcing the establishment of military government and in entering upon his duties as military governor, in pursuance of his appointment as such by the government of the United States, desires to assure the people that so long as they preserve the peace and perform their duties toward the representatives of the United States, they will not be disturbed in their persons and property, except in so far as may be found necessary for the good of the service of the United States and the benefit of the people of the Philippines.