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familiarize himself sufficiently with the matter to answer his last letter to Gen. Merritt. The insurgents had now been infesting the city for a month; and Gen. Otis determined that the only solution compatible with the duties and obligations
of the command was to order the removal of the insurgents from their position, and to such distance that there would be no interference with the occu
pation of the BRIDGE NEAR FORT SAN ANTONIO.
Americans in the territory surrendered by the Spaniards. After submitting to the War Department his views of the situation he was instructed to proceed, and, if need be, use force to effect a removal. Gen. Otis now addressed a letter to Aguinaldo in which the exigencies of the case were set forth, and closed by giving Aguinaldo notice to remove his forces from the jurisdictional limits of Manila by September 15th on penalty of being forcibly removed by the Americans. Aguinaldo was at this time establishing his headquarters and seat of government at Malolos, with communication by railroad north and south, and a country of large resources tributary.
Aguinaldo demurred and again sought his favorite method of doing business by commission. An encounter seemed likely to occur, and the Americans strengthened their positions and prepared for the worst. In the conference which followed, the insurgent leaders still professed their cordial amity towards the American occupation, but wanted an agreement made that in case Manila was put back into Spanish control, they should have the same positions before Manila that they now held. They desired also to know whether the Spaniards would have returned to them the guns and supplies captured by the Americans, and be re-instated in the position they occupied before the attack of August 13th. Gen. Otis in reply said, “If the Americans quit control the Spaniards will be reinstated in their defensive positions and their arms restored to them." There was intense dissatisfaction on the part of a large element of the insurgent command with this disposition of the matter, and an open rupture was imminent. Gen. Pio del Pilar was the leader of this faction.
THE FILIPINOS EVACUATE. After acceding to all requirements the Filipinos made a last request that in removing from their position they be allowed to march up the Luneta with their arms and pass the ground of the inany bloody executions of their friends by the Spaniards. To this Gen. Ovenshine in command of the Ermita and Malate precincts consented. On the morning of the 14th, there were indications of a move,
and all our sentries were on the keen lookout for events. Early on this morning, that part of the insurgent forces which would make their departure by the Luneta, began to move. The columns passed from the Calle Real into the Calle San Luis, the rank and file in blue drilling led by the famous Pasig band of ninety pieces and the column headed by Col. Callis. Down the Paco Road they went to the Calle Bagumbayan where they soon stood beside the wall where so many of their comrades had endured Spanish execution. As they passed the Wyoming Regiment, cheer upon cheer was given by the Wyoming boys. It was an incident long remembered by the insurgents. With the removal of the insurgents there was no further immediate opposition to American control.
THE MILITARY GOVERNMENT. The withdrawal of the Filipinos from the immediate vicinity of the city left the commanding general free to arrange the details of the civil administration. The most important orders upon this subject will be found at the end of this chapter. Military rule required first, order; next, justice. As has been said, the people of Manila were anxious for the maintenance of order, but there were many adverse conditions to be met. During the interregnum the constabulary and all administrative functions had been suspended. It was a meeting of strangers in method, manner, and tongue, and the purposes of each were difficult of understanding by the cther. Some misunder
AN ENGAGEMENT IN A BAMBOO THICKET. standings and mistakes, under these circumstances, were unavoidable. That none which were serious occurred may be attributed to the forbearance of all parties concerned. Our habits and customs were so unlike those of the inhabitants that often our intent was in doubt, and the requirements under our rule were, in many essentials, so unlike those which preceded us that they were often considered severities. Our design was the betterment of the social life of the citizen and the security of his personal and property rights; but the two civilizations were so unlike that those intended to be benefitted were often disposed to rebel. Spanish custom approved much that is not only distasteful, but iniquitous, under our laws and civilization, and the interference with native habits naturally brought enmity and discontent. This was especially the case as to gambling, which was a national habit.
THE FILIPINOS OBJECT TO CLEANLINESS. The many restrictions put upon the citizens in social life and essential to the maintenance of military rule were irksome, and our sanitary measures brought our rule squarely in conflict with the daily life of the great mass of people.
When our army took possession of the city it seemed that the rot and ruin of centuries were within its borders. Degeneration and decay were everywhere. It
was essential that this be remedied, but the enforced cleanliness was very distasteful.
The orders hereafter given show the character of our government. The system of constabulary was in the hands of the Provost Marshal
General's Department, BAMBOO THICKET CUT DOWN BY BULLETS.
and was apportioned into districts, and these again into precincts. The Provost Marshal had direct supervision of the patrol, which, by details, was constantly on the guard, and thus the whole area of the city was constantly under the scrutiny of the military eye. This patrol was composed of the rank and file of the army, and it was the only part of the army that came directly in personal contact with the mass of the people. Every act of this strange people was to be interpreted by this patrol; their methods learned, their intentions measured, their purposes understood.
NEWS OF THE COMING PEACE. News of the signing of the peace protocol arrived in Manila on the 15th of August, and the Spaniards now asked for re-instatement into their position held before the attack of August 13th, claiming that the protocol was in force at the time of the attack, and it was in its violation that the attack and capitulation were made.
The provisions of the protocol affecting the situation in the Philipines were as follows:
Third. The United States will occupy and hold the city, bay, and harbor of Manila, pending the conclusion of a treaty of peace which shall determine the control, disposition and government of the Philippines.
Fifth. The United States and Spain will each appoint not more than five commissioners to negotiate and conclude a treaty of peace. The commissioners are to meet at Paris not later than the 1st of October.
Sixth. On signing the protocol, hostilities will be suspended, and notice to that effect will be given as soon as possible by each government to the commanders of its military and naval forces.
The protocol was immediately circulated extensively among the native population, and was not only read, but “read between the lines," and from this on the native temperature, which for a time had been cool, fast lowered towards the freezing point. Notwithstanding this tendency to frigidity, the patrol, with trifling exceptions, had no conflicts with the people. From the 20th of August to February 4th, eight people had been shot in the city. These were cases where there was either open hostility or attempted escape from arrest, and in every case, after full consideration, were approved by the Provost Marshal-General. A number of minor offenses were treated, but the percentage of crime was no greater than other American cities of like size. The crimes committed were mostly charged to a party of Macabebees, who, seventy-five in number, entered the city by the Pasig River, and for a time kept their haunt secret from the patrol. When once discovered they were readily disposed of, but for a time they terrorized the city. A number of patrolmen were injured by these tribesmen. Their habit was to approach their victim with their head bared, their wide hats held to their breasts, and when within striking distance, thrust the hat into the face of and plunge the dagger into the victim.
THE FILIPINOS ACCUMULATE ARMS. It soon became known that the insurgents without the city were being supplied with arms and ammunition. On the 31st of August the steamer Abbie landed a cargo of these supplies at Batangas, and afterwards landed a second cargo before being detected, when she was seized by order of Admiral Dewey. After a time the death rate of the Filipinos became surprising, and the frequency of burials led to further investigation, whereby it was learned that the putative corpse was in
AGUINALDO'S CARRIAGE. reality arms and ammunition, being carried through the lines for the insurgents. These arms had, at some prior time, been secreted, largely in the cathedrals and monasteries, by the Spanish authorities to be distributed in case of emergency and used against the Filipinos in an uprising.
On August 16th, soon after the surrender, the Monadnock had arrived, and on the 20th, the expedition under Gen. Elwell E. Otis. This expedition brought about 5000 men, which somewhat served to dampen the warlike ardor of the insurgents.
SANITARY REGULATIONS ENFORCED. Sinitation received immediate attention after the American control began, and a series of orders were issued, formulated by Deputy Surgeon-General Lippincott, prescribing the methods of averting disease. These orders prescribed cleanliness of person and surroundings, proper diet and abstinence from drink, and caution as to intercourse with the native class. These regulations were rigidly enforced. Smallpox of a mild type is very common among the natives, and few attain their majority not having had the disease. If not closely watched and well treated the malignant type sets in. Fevers of various types were prevalent, especially typhoid.
THE SPANISH PRISON-HOUSES OPENED. There were 2900 prisoners left by the Spaniards in the Presidio and Bilibid Prisons. In the Bilibid Prison were 28 women and 1300 men, mostly “suspects,” that is, they had been arrested and incarcerated upon the suspicion of being in league with the enemies of the realm, and there many had remained for years without a trial or the formality of indictment. Most of the women were charged with insurrection and open revolt against the government. It was a very common thing to find that their property had been confiscated by officials, and the victims left penniless. Every case was promptly taken up and considered. Many of the men were held upon suspicion of being in sympathy with the revolution of 1896, and had been entitled to their liberation for a long time. Some, whose property had been confiscated, were detained long after their sentence had expired. With few exceptions, they were all Filipinos. Over 1200 were summarily discharged by the American authorities, which went far to pacify the Filipinos in their distrust of the Americans. One of the first acts after investigating prison affairs was the arrest of some prison officials on the charge of embezzling prison funds. They were tried and found guilty of thus embezzling $1600.
THE FISCAL ADMINISTRATION.
One of the first duties of the military governor was to provide a revenue. This was derived from the customs, internal revenue, licenses, water rents, fines and miscellaneous sources. The revenue was honestly collected and disbursed, and the following statement of the receipts and disbursements for the first two months of American occupation will give an idea of the sources of income and expenditure: RECEIPTS AND DISBU'RSEMENTS FOR TWO MONTHS.
$10,455.81 Internal revenue collections ... 156,378.97 Water rents. ......
37,060.82 Customs ...... .. 1,811,358.21 Markets ......
13,966.98 Captain of Port-fees ...... 1,823.21 Butchers ....
23,075.04 Quartermaster ....... 58.00 Cemeteries .......
4,167.43 Subsistence Department. 3,150.15 Licenses..
Captain of the Port, for clearing
river of obstructions and for schools, street cleaning, Sani
launch hire ............. $24,870.88 tary Department and Fire De
General expenses, stationery and partment .................... 193,963.47 printing .................... 495.66 Internal Revenue Office, includ
Medical supplies for Spanish prising $7,000 re-fund of taxes ille
1,281.95 gally collected .............. 10,182.24 Chief Quartermaster, general exCustom House, general expenses. 17,751.16 penses, mostly transportation.. 300,424.75 Chief Commissary, for support of
Chief Ordnance Officer, arsenal Spanish prisoners ........ 537,241.74 repairs ........
115........ ............. 1,200.00