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Photo by Lilie.

mud. Nevertheless, he urged the Iowas across, and proceeding along the line to where the Nebraskas were just arriving, on the banks of the estero, sent them also across, instructing them to go to the right and ahead of the Iowa men, and,

if possible, to flank the enemy. As they advanced through the swamps in execution of his order, they were fired into on their right and front. The fire on the right, showing serious signs of flank attack, the South Dakotas were ordered to go to the Nebraskas' right and draw it off. Thus, the three regiments advanced, floundering through swamps and muddy streams, fir

ing as they went. On seeing this, GEN. OTIS AT MALOLOS.

the Filipinos hastily retreated. Gen. Hale crossed the river and followed the Nebraskas until they succeeded in getting through the first branch of the Santo Tomas River. After this he went to the left of the line, where the Iowas, near the destroyed stone bridge, were delivering a telling fire upon the insurrectos, driving them across the stream, many of them throwing their guns into the water as they fled. When the General found that the insurgents were retreating towards a strong line of entrenchments, between the wagon road and the railway, he sent word to Col. Mulford of the Nebraska Regiment to flank them out.

Col. Mulford in a few minutes appeared, covered with blue swamp mud, and gave the gratifying information that his regiment had kept on, wading eleven streams altogether, and had already taken the trenches in question.

This advance of the Nebraska, Iowa and South Dakota Regiments through swamps knee- to waist-deep, and numerous stagnant, mud-boitomed esteros, waist-to neck-deep, under oppressive heat and in the face of a galling fire, driving the enemy from entrenched positions, which would have been strong without these natural obstacles, and with them would have been impregnable, if held by well armed troops, may fairly be considered the most remarkable exhibition of persevering pluck and energy during the campaign. The Iowas, having con

WOUNDED FILIPINOS. Photo by Darcey. structed a floating bamboo foot-bridge across the river at the broken stone bridge, began to cross and move forward, deploying on the Nebraskas' left in trenches. Gen. Hale returned to the first river to see what progress was

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being made in bridging it and getting the artillery across. The engineers were obliged to send back a considerable distance for bamboo to make a raft, and it was doubtful whether a crossing could be effected before night. The

pack-horses, unloaded, swam across, the packs being carried by the men, but the wheeled transportation had to remain. The remainder crossed on the footbridge and deployed on the


braskas. The brigade then advanced in line, and bivouacked on the road running northeast from Santo Tomas railroad station. During the night, although exhausted by the day's work, large details went back about three miles for the wagon train, which could not cross the streams, and carried up rations and ammunition. The distance marched by the flank, not counting the trip to the wagon train, was eleven miles, including about two miles of swamps and esteros. The casualties for the day were, 1st Nebraska, two enlisted men killed and five wounded; Iowas, three enlisted men wounded; South Dakotas, one enlisted man wounded.

The next morning, Gen. MacArthur, having received report from Maj. Bell's scouting party that San Fernando seemed to be held only by a small force of the enemy, directed Gen. Hale to take two battalions and occupy the town. Two battalions of the Iowas were immediately formed and moved to the corner of main San Fernando Road. The column marched northwest on the road to a point near the entrenchments, about half a mile southeast of the river and town. They proceeded north across open fields, forded a muddy estero, advanced beyond the bend in the river, and deployed parallel to river, facing west, so as to enter the town on the east side.

Gen. Hale accompanied the right battalion, and Maj. Bell the left. On reaching the bank of the river a brisk fire opened on the left. The right battalion was rushed across the river which was about chest deep, and flung to the left, to flank the enemy in front of the left battalion. The latter kept on, however, without serious resistance, and the entire line wheeling to the left, reached the railroad near the station, discovering and firing on some parties of insurgents escaping on the roads to the west of Bacolor. From there companies were sent out up the roads and the railroad, and others through the town, all finally assembling in the church.

In this engagement one enlisted man was wounded and several insurgents were killed. Sentinels were promptly posted throughout the town to protect property, and a line of outposts established in semi-circular form from the river, southwest


of town, towards Bacolor. Strict orders were issued against looting, and it is believed that the behavior of troops in this respect was very exemplary. The South Dakota Regiment, in compliance with instructions from the Division Commander, was sent for, and arrived at San Fernando about 5:30 P. M., relieving the Iowas from interior provost guard duty. The railroad station, church, and a number of buildings in its vicinity, had been burned by the insurrectos, but the greater part of the town was uninjured. A number of warehouses containing a large quantity of sugar were found.

Several Spanish prisoners were discovered in the town, including the former secretary of the province, a captain and other officers. They stated that from 1200 to 1500 insurrectos had passed through to the north on the previous afternoon, after the fight of Santo Tomas, and that Gen. Luna was wounded on the arm or chest, and was carried on a couch.

Next morning the Nebraska Regiment was ordered from Santo Tomas to San Fernando, and was quartered on the main road, guarding the front, from the railroad northeasterly about 1400 yards. The 1st Brigade also came up, and occupied the ground west of the railroad. The insurgents were located around the entire front of our troops on the northwest side of the river, and had been entrenching, especially across the Mexico road, and the adjoining country.

From the outbreak of the Filipino war on its front on the night of February 4th, and the capture by it of the first Filipino position, taken by the American troops on the morning of February 5th, the 2d Brigade of the second division fought its way through fifty miles, as the crow flies, of hostile and strongly defended country, marching, in its numerous turning movements and side engagements, as measured on the way, over two hundred miles. The entire brigade was involved in eighteen battles; portions of it consisting of two or more organizations, had eight engagements; and single regiments or parts thereof fought on nine other occasions, making a total of thirty-five engagements in which the troops of this brigade participated. It lost six officers and forty-seven enlisted men killed, twentytwo officers and three hundred and thirty-one enlisted men wounded, making a total of four hundred and six casualtiesthe largest of any brigade in the corps. In the advance from Manila to Malolos, Gen. Hale and two of his three staff officers, Capt. Krayenbuhl and Lieut. Perry were wounded,-Capt. Krayenbuhi, mortally.

SOUTH DAKOTA BOYS ON THE FIRING LINE. Photo by Lillie. Three brigade orderlies were wounded during the campaign. Two staff officers and four orderlies were compelled to return to Manila on account of heat exhaustion, and other sickness, and another officer was rendered practically


unfit for field service by partial sunstroke. These facts testifiy to the hard work and excellent service rendered by the brigade.


The morning of May 4th, in compliance with instructions of Major-General MacArthur, Gen. Wheaton advanced from the vicinity of Calumpit to attack the enemy in position near St. Tomas. His force consisted of the 20th Kansas and 1st Montana Volunteer Inf., with two machine guns on small cars pushed by hand. The advance was directed along the railroad track, while that of BrigadierGeneral Hale with his brigade and the artillery was directed along the wagon road, a mile to two miles on Gen. Wheaton's right. The country along each side of the railroad embankment was found to be cut up with tide-water channels or esteros, and marshy ground was so continuous that all the command kept on the railroad. Upon approaching St. Tomas, about five miles from Calumpit, the enemy was found entrenched upon the north bank of a river, deep and unfordable, and the bridge broken down. Hale, upon the right, became engaged in


THE "THIN BROWN LINE" BEHIND THE RICE PADDIES, spirited combat, and Gen. Wheaton opened upon the enemy's entrenchments with both the Gatling guns and the Hotchkiss revolving cannon. Three companies of the 20th Kansas were advanced and seized all points from which an effective fire might be directed upon the enemy's entrenchments to the right of the railroad bridge, and one company of 1st Montana was deployed to the left. A fire was also kept up from points along the enbankment upon the enemy's works near St. Tomas. After some time, Hale continuing to advance, and our fire increasing in intensity, the enemy set fire to St. Tomas and soon after was driven from his entrenchments near the bridge. Gen. Wheaton crossed the bridge with the 20th Kansas, and a heavy fire was opened on the enemy as he evacuated the entrenchments on our left and fled beyond St. Tomas. The 20th Kansas was then advanced to the railroad station a half mile or more north of the bridge, and at once became engaged with a large force of the enemy occupying two lines of entrenchments. With his staff, Gen. Wieaton at once proceeded to the place of combat, 1. COLONEL JOHx M. STOTSENBERG, First Nebraska, killed in action at the battle of Quingua, April 23, 1899 (Elite photo, S. F.). 2. MAJOR EDWARD MCCONVILLE (Brevet Brigadier-General), First Idaho, killed in action near San Pedro Macati, February 6, 1899 (Elite photo, S. F.). 3. COLONEL ALEXANDER L HAWKINS, Tenth Pennsylvania died at sea while returning home with regiment, July, 1899. 1. COLONEL WILLIAM C. SMITH, First Tennessee, died of apoplexy on battlefield, February 3, 1899.




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