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outposts. There is little or no vestige of civil government in any part of the island of Luzon with which we have become acquainted. In the Visayan group, where our force is small, there have of late been a good many outbreaks, doubtless incited by agents of Aguinaldo.

CHARACTER OF THE CAMPAIGN NOW OPENING. The detailed history of our operations in the Philippines necessarily closes with the end of the spring campaign, and the beginning of the rainy season. The new campaign with increased forces is beginning as this volume goes to press. The reader of these pages will be able, in connection with the maps herein contained, to follow the telegraphic accounts of the movements of our army far more intelligently than has hitherto been possible to the American public. With the increased force now at command, and the certainty that they can be retained until their mission is accomplished, the American commander will be able to proceed far more effectively than has hitherto been possible. The geography of the country has become known, the disposition of the inhabitants, and the resources of the insurgents. It is announced that it will be the policy of the gorernment to close all ports on the island of Luzon except those controlled by our forces. This will cut off a large revenue which Aguinaldo has enjoyed from customs, and put a stop to the importations of arms and ammunition, except such as escaping the vigilance of our navy, may be landed in out-of-the-way places. The first military operation will be to occupy the great fertile valley which runs northward from the province of Cavite, through Manila, and which is traversed by the Manila and Dagupan Railroad, which has been continually fought over for the past year. It is announced that this valley will now be occupied for the entire length of the railroad by a force sufficient to permanently hold and police it. When this is done, and the ports closed, the power of Aguinaldo will be broken. He can no longer maintain armies, and must either submit or resort to a guerrilla warfare in the mountains, which, if he is not captured, he can doubtless continue for some time. But with the permanent occupation of the great valley, the natives assured of protection, will certainly return and resume their occupations. They will have no other alternative. They cannot live otherwise. They will certainly enjoy a better government than they have ever before lived under, and the island will probably gradually become pacified.

LIBRAR

OF THE
UNIVERSITY

CALIFORNIA

CE

CHAPTER XV.

THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS AND THEIR PEOPLE.

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HE story of the campaign in the Philippines cannot be intelli

gently followed without some knowledge of the islands and their people. It is also evident that, for other reasons, all that pertains to the country and its inhabitants is at this time of deep concern to the people of the United States; while no argument will be made upon questions of public policy, the facts set forth herein may be of benefit to those seeking a judicious solution of the vexed questions arising from our occupation; and while the moral and intellectual worth of the

islanders is of grave consideration to those seeking their betterment, the material conditions and possibilities of the country will be important factors in shaping our policy with regard to it.

All that will be attempted, however, is a brief statement of the essential facts, leaving the reader to pursue such further research into non-essentials he may desire. While the descriptive matter is necessarily brief, it will be found well supplemented by the various maps, charts and illustrations.

The Philippine Islands (so called in honor of Philip II of Spain) extend over an area of about one thousand miles north and south, and six hundred miles east and west. The number of islands is variously estimated at from four hundred to two thousand. Of these many are unknown even by name, and of those enumerated many are wholly or in great part unexplored. All of the present maps and charts of the islands are very defective, even those which relate to the harbors, the bays, and the coast line. The value of each island to the group, or of that of the group to the world, can at best be but imperfectly understood until their interiors are better explored, and the numerous bays, harbors and channels properly surveyed. The maps and charts give substantially the location of the archipelago, or group, in reference to the seas and the continents. These should be considered in connection with a study of established steamship lines to or near the islands.

Some twenty islands are named as being considered the chief in size and importance, the principal of which is Luzon, upon which Manila is situated. Their particular specification will not add to the value of this summary. Their estimated area is 114,356 square miles. Luzon has 41,000 square miles, Mindanao has 37,500 square miles, and five of the others have over 10,000 square miles each. Luzon has been compared to the State of Virginia in size, and that of the group to Arizona.

PHYSICAL ASPECTS. The physical aspect of these islands is of interest. Throughout the group there is a mountain system with a trend north and south, with occasional deflections. From sources in these mountain ranges spring a great multitude of rivers and rivulets, which make their outlet into the sea. In these, cascades, cataracts

and rushing torrents are very common. Between the ridges, and along the streams are found alluvial deposits, which broaden and widen as they approach the sea, until, in the region of their mouths, they constitute a vast plain, unsurpassed for fertility and productiveness. But it must not be inferred that this excellence of soil is restricted to the plains; rank vegetation and towering hardwood trees cover the major part of these ranges to their summits. There is a grotesque grandeur in the scene. The abrupt declivities, the precipitous walls, the rugged, towering pinnacles and peaks, are exhibitions of Nature in its wildest aspects. There is Mindanao, a wonder and surprise throughout the whole 10,000 feet of elevation from the sea to the summit of Apo. This is likewise true of Halcon in Mindoro, 8900 feet, and also Mayon, in Luzon, over 8000 feet. This last is well known to have been a volcano, and not long since in violent action; in fact the whole region may be said to be a land of extinct volcanoes, giving evidences of the most destructive eruptions. The latest convulsions are those noted as occurring in 1863 and in 1880, when the destruction was great in Manila. In 1627 one of the most elevated mountains in the province of Cagayan disappeared, and in 1675 a passage was made to the sea on the Island of Mindoro, from which a vast plain emerged.

EARLY HISTORY UNKNOWN. But little is known of the origin and early history of the inhabitants of these islands. Their traditions, which should give us some clew, appear, under the educational influences of the Catholic clergy, to have been sup

pressed, changed, or inex

tricably intermingled

with inventions of the friars themselves. It

is believed that the original type is found in the Aetas or Negritos, a species of dwarfish blacks now found in the mountain regions of Luzon

and Negros, but fast becoming extinct.

Large areas in the interior, NATIVES GRINDING RICE.

however, are inhabited by the savage natives, of whom but little is known. Their number is unknown, but from the best information obtainable, is supposed to approximate one million. All estimates, however, of the total population are conjectural, as there has never been a complete or reliable census of the islands. The estimates vary, and range from eight to ten millions. We should judge from the density of the population of the provinces best known—a tabulated statement of a few of which is subjoined—that the above total is rather under than over the actual number.

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The population of the best known provinces is exceedingly mixed. Malays predominate largely, and with these are found Aetas, Negritos (pure blacks), Chinese, Japanese, Indios, Moors and Europeans, and every conceivable shade of intermixture. It is estimated there are quite as many different tribes as islands, and that at least five hundred different languages and dialects are spoken. It may be said generally of the inhabitants that they are amenable to government, that the Malays are superior to many other Asiatics, and that they are honest, honorable, and readily yield obedience to better influences.

POLITICAL SUBDIVISIONS.
A province under the Spanish dominion was a division of land, with a capital
and government of its own, but all subordinate to the Governor-General at Manila.
Luzon had thirty-five of these subordinate provinces, as follows:
PROVINCE

POPULATION
19,702

................. Bangued Albay

296,850

.................. Albay Amburayan.

30,150

.......... Alilen Apayaos ......

6,000

........ Bagubagu Bataan ........ 52,000

Balanga Batangas .....

212,192

. Batangas Benguet

15,932

La Trinidad Binatangan

.......

Binatangan Bontoc ......

24,502

......... Bontoc Bulacan

230,000

......... Bulacan Cabugavon....

.......

.Cabugayon Cagayan .......

112,357

Tuguegarao Camarines .....

185,878

. Nueva Caceres Cavite ......... 133,926

. Cavite Cayapa ........

........ Cayapa Ilocos Norte. 156,900

Laoag Ilocos Sur.

172,836

.......... Vigan Infanta

10,200

Binangonan de Lampon Isabela de Luzon.

46,846

............ Ilagan Itaves

15,208

......... Macogao Laguna ........

177,000

Santa Cruz Lepanto

19,422

.Cervantes Manila

100,238

......... Manila Morong ........

42,748

............. Morong Nueva Ecija

155,000

San Isidro Nueva Vizcaya

23,520

Bayombong Pampanga.

250,000

.......... Bacolor Pangasinan

295,105

Lingayen Principe ......

5,000

....... Baler Quiangan.

29,800

Quiangan Tarlac.......

97,947

........... Tarlac Tayabas .......

105,576

........ Tayabas Tiagan ........

3,041

San Emilio Union (La.)..

119,421

........ San Fernando Zambales

.......................... Iba The province of Manila, the seat of the general government, has an area of 264 square miles, and a population of over 400,000. Manila proper, or Old Manila, contained a population, previous to the war, of 110,000. The main part of the

87,641

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NAME

.............

population of the locality known as Manila was in the suburbs, chief of which were: Pueblo, Binondo, San Jose, Santa Cruz, with fifteen wards ; Quiapo, with two wards; San Miguel, with seven wards; Sampaloc, with thirty-nine wards, and Tondo, with eighteen wards. All of these suburbs are easy of access, and in them are centered the chief mercantile transactions of the islands, while not only in business, but in most of their attractions, they far outrank Old Manila. The total distance east and west, in a direct line through Manila, is 4/4 miles, and total distance north and south, 472 miles. - The following are the chief cities and towns of the province:

POP('LATION

DISTANCE FROM MANILA *Caloocan ..

9,813

5 miles from city limits Dilao.

4,625

3 miles from city limits Ermita ......

7,726

..4 miles from city limits Las Pinas..

4,000

8 miles from city limits Malate ..............

2,319

23 mile from city limits Malabon or Tambobong .

25,000

6 miles from city limits Malibay

2,890

4 miles from city limits Mariquina ...

10,313

7 miles from city limits Montalban

3,055

16 miles from city limits Muntinlupa.

5,068

21 miles from city limits Navotas ..........

9,154

614 miles from city limits Pandacan ....

2,446

2 miles from city limits Paranaque ..

9,863

.678 miles from city limits Pasig.

22,000

7 miles from city limits Pateros ...........

2,812

3 miles from city limits Pineda .

9,825

316 miles from city limits San Felipe Neri. .....

5,465

2%2 miles from city limits San Juan del Monte

2,011

2 miles from city limits San Mateo

6,700

· 17 miles from city limits San Pedro Macati .

3,921 ........

3 miles from city limits Santa Ana ..

2,194 ............ 3 miles from city limits Taguig ........

9,662 .............. 9'2 miles from city limits * The distances given are calculated from the Walled City or Old Manila | With highway to Caloocan.

Cavite is the capital of the province of Cavite. The province has an area of 480 square miles, and within this is a population of 133,926. It is contiguous to, and closely identified with, Manila in its enterprises. The towns and cities range from 1000 to 15,000 in population. Bulacan, the capital of the province of Bulacan, has a population of 13,186, distant 22 miles from Manila. The area of the province is 965 square miles, and it has a total population of 230,000. This is one of the richest provinces in the archipelago, and maintains a variety of industries, agricultural, manufacturing, and commercial. The cities are in close proximity to each other, with good means of communication.

Close at hand, and north of Manila province, is the province of Pampanga; it has an area of 787 square miles, and a population of 250,000, distributed among 22 pueblos and 329 barios. Bacolor, the capital, has a population of 10,642, and is situated 47 miles from Manila. The pueblos or cities range in population from 3000 to 20,000, and are distant from each other and the capital from 1 to 20 miles. The foregoing will suffice to illustrate the distribution of the great bulk of the population of the Island of Luzon.

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