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effects upon different localities differently exposed; and the varying altitudes, from plain to mountain top, should also be considered. We have the mean temperature of three seasons, known as cold, hot, wet, at several places, as follows:

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At Manila the average rainfall yearly is reported to be from seventy-five to one hundred and twenty inches; this is small compared with many other localities. In the archipelago of Liano, northeast of Mindanao, the average rainfall is one hundred and forty-two inches. The United States Weather Bureau makes the following computation of weather at Manila, covering a period of thirty-two years:

TEMPERATURE. Mean annual ...

80 degrees Warmest month.

82 Coldest month

79 Highest temperature

.100 Lowest temperature

60 Humidity, relative per cent, 78 degrees, absolute grains, per cubic foot, 8.75.

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The heated term lasts from March to June, the greatest heat usually being in the month of May, before the wet season. At this time the temperature maximum ranges from 80° to 100°, but most of that time nearer the latter mark. The cool season is most marked, beginning with December and ending with February. During this time the temperature ranges usually from 60° to 65° at night, and seldom goes above 75° in the daytime. It should be noted here that the difference in the length of the longest and the shortest day at Manila scarcely exceeds one and one-half hours during the year. The months of November, December, January and February, are set down as “the delightful season” of the year.

” As a rule the sky is clear, and the weather dry and cool. Among the chief causes superinducing unlike conditions in different localities are the winds and the currents. THE TYPHOONS. There are three well defined classes of wind in the Philippines—the Calla, Nortada and Baguio, the last being more generally known as the typhoon. The Calla usually lasts three days, at the end of which its subsidence is usually perceptible; during this time, however, it has a varying force, but is constant from a given direction, although generally it has the accompaniments of calms, squalls, and then heavy dashes of rain. The Nortada is as a rule premonitory of an approaching or passing typhoon. It is in the nature of a constant wind, and is most common in the northern portions of the islands. It is in these localities that the typhoon is usually known in its season. This season proper is in the months of July, August and September, although it may be expected any time between May and Novem

Due to causes, not yet definitely known, these terrific wind centers have their origin in the Pacific Ocean, thence take their way across the China Sea, during which

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time they seem to augment in power and force, striking in their southwesterly course from the northeast, the northernmost parts of the islands. As the summer time passes, their frequency increases, and with this, their track extends southward. Their course seldom extends south of 9° North latitude. Such regularity governs the action of these winds that the time of their regular coming at Manila is fixed for the latter part of October or the first of November. It is not the rapidity of the progressive motion of these winds and storms that is alarming, for they have never been known to exceed fourteen miles an hour; their usual speed is eleven or twelve miles per hour; but the spiral or gyrating motion is the destructive force, which seems to draw everything within its path into the vortex of destruction and death. The diameter of this wind circle ranges from forty to one hundred and thirty miles, with an axis or central wind vacuum of eight to fifteen miles. The length of time, then, that this wind or storm may continue at a given place, is usually less than ten hours. At times there is a deluge of rain, and from the low, dark clouds there is emitted a continuous electrical discharge. The China Sea Directory treats of the typhoon as follows: "The earliest signs of a typhoon are clouds of a cirrus type, looking like fine hair or feathers, or small white tufts of wool, traveling from east or north; a slight rise in the barometer; clear and dry weather and light wind. These signs are

usually followed by the usual ugly and threatening appearance of the weather which forebodes most storms, and the increasing of the number and severity of the gusts of wind with the rising of the storm. In some cases, one of the earliest signs is a long, heavy swell, and confused sea, which comes from the direction from which the storm is approaching, and travels more rapidly than the storm center. The best and surest warning, however, will be found in the barometer. In every case there is a great barometric disturbance, accordingly, if the barometer falls rapidly, or even if the regularity of its diurnal variation be disrupted, danger may be apprehended. No positive rule can be given as to the amount of depression to be expected, but at the center of some of the storms, the barometer is said to stand fully two inches lower than outside the storm field. The average barometer gradient near the vortex of the most violent of these storms is said to be rather more than one inch in fifty nautical miles.

As the center of the storm is approached, the more rapid become the changes of wind, until at length, instead of its direction altering gradually, as is the case on first entering the storm field, the wind flies around at once to the opposite direction, the sea meanwhile breaking into mountainous and confused heaps. There are instances on record of the wind suddenly falling in the vortex, and the clouds dispersing for a short interval, though the wind soon blows again, with renewed fury.”



THE OCEANIC CURRENTS. The oceanic currents have much to do with climatic conditions in the Philippines. What is known as the Equatorial Current, exists between the 26° South, and 24° North. This consists of two mighty currents coming from east to west, on either side of the Equator, while between the two is the great Counter Equatorial Current, running from west to east, and having an average width of three hundred miles. The Trade Drift which flows to the westward between the parallels of 99 and 20° North, on reaching the eastern shores of the Philippines, again turns to the northward, forming near the northern limit of that group, the commencement of the Japan Current; the main body of the current then flows along the east coast of Formosa, and from that island pursues a northeasterly course through the chain of islands lying between Formosa and Japan, and sweeping along the southeastern coast of Japan in the same general direction; it is known to reach the parallel of 50° North. The limits and velocity of the Japan Current are considerably influenced by the monsoons in the China Sea, and by the prevailing winds in the corresponding seasons in the Yellow-Japan Sea; also by the various drift currents which these periodic winds produce. It is thus easy to infer that the whole Philippine group presents a variable climate. It is told by a party of travelers that they passed a whole year in the Philippines, and at no time were in a locality during a rainfall. The intersection of storm currents by mountain ranges, and the change and alteration of these currents in the seasons, makes this possible.

UNHEALTHFULNESS OF MANILA. The salubrity of many localities, including some entire islands, is unquestioned, but Manila and its environments will never be noted as a health re ort. Good sanitation will dispel much of the pestilential conditions, but it will always be a marked place of discomfort. Healthfulness did not enter into the question of its founding. When first known by the Spaniards, there was a large center of population here, and the place was called by the natives, “Manila." There was another large city at hand, called by the natives, “Tondo," and under different chiefs. It was then a fortified place, with mounted bronze cannon, but there is no record by whom, or when founded. The Pasig River was on the north, the bay in front, while swamps were south and east. For defense, it was a place easily fortified, and in a large measure made impregnable to the old methods of warfare. The ground is but a trifle above sea-level. This place is now known as “Old Manila.” It is a thing remarkable that in all the centuries since the Spaniards have but added to the noisomeness of the place. Internal improvement does not accord with the Spanish mind and Spanish official thrift. Here, with a population approximating 350,000 souls, there is not an artificial sewerage system in the whole place. The city depends almost entirely upon nature for sewerage, as the people do largely for a living. A few natural cuts or water-ways, which serve as conduits when there is an overflow caused by excessive rainfall at certain seasons of the year, is the only way of cleansing the city of its filth. The water is so stagnant that this is only in part washed from the city, but the decompositions of the season are left in solution, to impregnate and saturate the soil. When these water-beds become dry, and the black scum covers them over, the exhalation is awful. As a source of pestilence, it is difficult to conceive its equal. It is said that the old moat surrounding the Old

A FILIPINO “BOLO MAN.' Manila wall has never been cleansed since the first century of its existence. It was formerly constructed so that it could be flooded through a number of gates, but the gates got out of repair soon after they were built, and as all the revenue was needed by the officials in their affairs, the necessary outlay



to put them in repair could not be made; so for centuries since, the moat has remained uncleansed, and there it is to-day, extending around the city, along the wall, a distance of two and one-quarter miles, a reeking putrescent

An apology has been made by the Spanish authorities that it could not be disturbed because of the pestilence it would breed. The sanitary condition of the city, through the work of “the details," has been much improved since the American occupation, who did much to rid the city of its putrefaction.

With a heavy rainfall about one-third of the year and blistering sun the major part of the remainder, health conditions could not be desirable. There are few days in the year when the people are not compelled to remain indoors, avoiding, in a way, the excessive heat during this heated term. Still, this is the headquarters of our army, and for months this army of inactivity was kept bottled up amid these stifling elements of death. This plague-spot has many tributaries and ramifications, in which the military campaign must be made. Directly back of Manila, interior and northward, are the rice-fields, a fact sufficient of itself to account for the long campaign; and for months the army has been largely kept in the trenches, on the march or in battle in this miasmatic place. As was to be

expected, there was enervation, exhaustion, debility and death. It is estimated that there are approximately 5,000,000 of the civilized natives. With few exceptions they seem to be hostile to our occupation. Their homes and property, without our lines, are largely in the great valley extending northward from Manila, and through which the Manila and Dagupan Railway, before mentioned, extends.

The region of the rice-fields is largely made up of small holdings, and here there is a dense population. Further north, and on the higher ground, of which San Fernando may be called the center, is the sugar-producing region, and beyond this the tobacco country. Nearly all the products of the island are grown in great abundance in this valley and its tributaries. Here is largely centered the wealth of Luzon Island. It may cost much in money and men to take and hold this country.




The following compilation is largely from the British Foreign Office report of 1897 and a United States Consular report of 1898:

The export staples from the Philippines are tobacco (manufactured and raw), cocoa, coffee, sugar, Manila hemp, and certain textile fabrics, consisting of baskets, ropes, mats, hats, carriages, musical instruments, pottery and furniture. During

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