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their railroad men These men didn't like to leave the firing line, but there is something about railroading that makes an old railroad man long to get back on an engine again, if only for a time, and as the engines, whenever they appeared, were usually saluted by a long range fire from the insurgent lines, they carry to this day marks of the Mauser bullet. The train crew did not have a chance to worry much about not being on the firing line. The train service settled into a steady routine supply of Gen. MacArthur's Division at Caloocan, until his advance on his long march to San Fernando. As soon as he had passed the Friageus River it was found that the track was torn up across the bridge and quite an embankment thrown across the track on the other side. The railroad wrecking gang, assisted by the engineers, immediately began to repair the bridge and track and had a train over in a few hours. All along the advance the track was found torn up at intervals and bridges damaged. Twenty railroad men were detailed from the 1st Colorado Volunteers and sent up to assist in the work of following the firing line. The track to Malolos was damaged at Tinajeus River, Malinta, Manlao, Bocaue, Bigaa, Guiguinto and Malolos, each break worse than the preceding one. The wrecking crew and engineers worked night and day and the trains followed the advance, supplying condensed water, fresh beef, bread and animunition and nearly every night carrying to Manila the men who had lost their lives or been wounded in the advance.
On the night before Malolos was taken, the headlight of the locomotive was on the firing line, and the train delivered some badly needed ammunition to the battery. The stop at Malolos gave the enemy time to badly use up the road from this on to San Fernando. Realizing the futility of tearing up the track, they dropped a span of the bridge at Bagbag into the river, and tore up the track clear into Calumpit. After Gen. MacArthur had advanced, this span was repaired by trestling up from the inclined span. The similar break at St. Tomas was repaired in the same way. At Calumpit, twelve of the tie-bearing girders had been taken entirely away. These were made in a few days in Manila.
Too much credit cannot be given to the trainmen and crews during this long advance. They got no extra pay for this arduous and dangerous service. Trains ran day and night-all day with the advance, carrying rations, ammunition and bridge-builders' supplies, and all night with the dead and wounded, back to Manila. They had every difficulty to overcome. New and hastily repaired engines, uncertain roadbed, constant danger in night runs of being derailed by insurgents, loss of sleep and often scant food. Not a man of them would have stood this sort of service back in the States for any amount of money, but they were working with the firing line for the glory of the American soldiers, and they stood by their work to the end.
THE SUBSISTENCE DEPARTMENT. The Subsistence Department of the U. S. A. is that branch of the service charged with the duty of supplying food and articles of consumption, such as groceries, fruits and other articles which comprise the rations of the troops, as well as such luxuries as they and other persons in the service of the United States are allowed to purchase from the government. Whenever it is practicable, the needed supplies are bought in the United States, but circumstances have arisen in the distant Philippine Islands, when the stocks of certain articles were depleted, that compelled the chief commissary at Manila to effect his purchases through tenders from local dealers, who, in the main, obtained supplies from Hongkong and Singapore. Distribution of rations to the troops takes place at stated intervals by the depot commissary, who delivers the supplies to men detailed from each regiment, who are authorized to receive the same by the officer charged with the duty of attending to the feeding of the command. This system applies when troops are in garrison.
In the field each brigade has a chief commissary, with a commissary for each division when practicable. These officers make requisitions upon the depot commissary for supplies for sale and the rations allowed by law, and upon receipt of the same apportion the allowances and regulate the issuances and sales to the respective regimental officers. .
The company cooks of each regiment, under the supervision of Sergeants, prepare the rations. The officers aud men buy articles from the sales depots of such food products as are not comprised in the ration list.
RATIONS ON THE TRANSPORTS. The following table shows the quantity and description of food issued to the troops on board the transports en route from the United States to the Philippine Islands; the computations are for 1000 men:
Onions, 200 pounds Pork.......
Canned Tomatoes, 300 pounds
100 Fresh Beef 875 pounds, or Fresh
1.50 Beef 759 pounds and Canned Sal
30 mon 125 pounds....
2.5 Dry Beans or Peas...... Rice or Hominy....
For 1000 men ..........3877.5 Fresh Potatoes, 800 poun:ls, or Pota
Per man one ration... 3 88 toes 700 pounds..............
RATIONS IN THE FIELD. The following table shows the rations issued to the troops when in the field. Computed for a body of 1000 men: Pounds
SO Hard Breal .......................
Soap Potatoes, Onions and Cainel Tona
Salt................... toes (when possible) ........... 1000
Pepper, black Coffee, roasted ..
For 1000 men ......... 3307.53 Sugar ................... ....... 10
One ration ........... 3.31
THE TRAVEL RATION.
FOR FIRST FOUR DAYS.
One thousand rations...
2430 One ration,.......
2.43 AFTER FOURTH DAY, ADDITIONAL
Pounds Tomatoes, (gallon cans) .............. One ration
Col. David L. Brainard has served as Chief Commissary with the army in the Philippines.
THE MEDICAL DEPARTMENT. The Medical Department of the army is under the supervison of the Surgeon-General, and no candidate can be examined for a commission as surgeon without his express sanction, which is only granted after evidence of such candidate's moral, intellectual and physical fitness to perform the necessary duties. The candidate for a commission must be a citizen of the United States, not more than twenty-nine years of age at date of appearing for such examination, and a graduate of some regular medical college with hospital training and practical experience.
The Chief Surgeon of an Army Corps is an officer attached to the staff of the commanding general, and is charged with the supervision of all matters pertaining to the health of the comniand. This includes sanitation, the hospital and ambulance service, the detail of medical officers and the obtaining, distribution and care of medical supplies. He prepares general orders, when necessary, which are signed and promulgated by the Corps Commander. The Chief Division and Brigade Surgeons have similar duties within their divisions and brigades. The regimental surgeon has charge of the health of his regiment, and the treatnient of temporary ailments, all serious cases being sent to the brigade, division, or general hospital, as circumstances may require. There are attached to each full regiment, one surgeon, ranking as Major, and two assistant surgeons, ranking respectively, as Captain and Lieutenant. When in action, field hospitals are established in sheltered places, as near the firing line as possible where temporary treatment is given, and are manned from the staff and regimental surgeons as circumstances require or permir. The organization of a medical service in a campaign is constantly changing, alcording to circumstances, but severe cases of wounds or sickness are sent as soon as possible to the general hospitals, where the best care can be given, and which are under the control of the Corps Surgeon. Each hospital, however, is an organization of itself, in charge of a surgeon and as many assistants as necessary, the surgeon in charge reporting to the Corps, Division, or Brigade Surgeon as the case may be. All officers and men are under the direct medical and sanitary direction of the regimental surgeons, until transferred to some hospital.
THE SUPPLY AND AMBULANCE SERVICE. That part of the medical service which in civil life is known as the “drug store" is in charge of non-commissioned officers, known as “ Hospital Stewards.” For the positions of hospital steward, and acting hospital steward, special examinations are necessary, and these are made by a medical board. Candidates must be unmarried and be physically and mentally capable of endurance, and have had experience in discipline and control of men, nursing and dispensary work, clerical work, cooking and mess management, hospital corps drill and minor surgery. Their duties are to care for the hospital stores and property, to compound and administer medicines, supervise preparation and serving of food, maintain discipline in the hospitals and watch over their police, and to supervise the duties of the Hospital Corps in the hospital and in the field. The Hospital Corps consists of stewards, and acting stewards and privates who are assigned to regiments as required.
The ambulance service is organized for the transport of the sick and wounded Ambulances are attached to each regiment and hospital and are under control of the surgeons, and there is an Ambulance Corps organized for general service, in removing the sick to hospitals and the wounded from the field of battle.
Except under special circumstances which justify the expectation that their rights as noncombatants under the Geneva Convention will not be recognized, no arms are issued to the Hospital Corps. During the war with the Filipinos, however, it has been frequently necessary to arm them, as they were not respected by the enemy.
The ambulance and hospital service of each command is under the supervision of its chief surgeon, who makes all necessary arrangements for the care of the sick and wounded, and their transportation during action. These arrangements are so made that they may receive attention with the line of battle under fire, at the dressing stations, at the ambulance stations and at the division, brigade and field hospitals.
To the ranking surgeon also falls the duty of detailing the number of medical officers, hospital stewards and privates of the Hospital Corps for duty with the advance line. First dressing stations are established at places near to the combatants, but where the wounded and those attendant upon them will not be exposed to fire. These dressing stations are distinguished by Red Cross flags in the day and by red lanterns at night.
MEDICAL DEPARTMENT OF THE EIGHTH ARMY CORPS. At the head of the medical service of the 8th Army Corps was Surgeon Henry Lippincott* U. S. V., with the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel and Deputy Surgeon-General. Immediately upon his arrival at Manila, Col. Lippincott was compelled to deal resolutely with the subject of
* Since relieved by Lieutenant-Colonel Alfred A. Woodhall, U.S. A.
sanitation. There was much sickness in the army, partly growing out of the filthy condition of all buildings and places which had been occupied by Spaniards or Filipinos, and partly by reason of the imprudence of the men, who did not willingly submit to the strict regulations concerning diet, drink and exposure which were necessary under the circumstances. By vigorous measures, however, the surroundings of the troops were made and kept clean, the men restrained from indulgence in unwholesome fruits, and compelled to drink no water which had not been boiled. As a result sickness rapidly decreased, and by the end of August, 1898, the health of the command was fairly good.
The surgeons had much to contend with on arrival, as transport work between the vessels and Camp Dewey and Cavite was difficult and dangerous, owing to the very stormy weather and heavy rain prevailing at the time. Much valuable property was lost or ruined, while lives of patients were endangered in the landing under such circumstances. On the organization of the Medical Department, under Col. Lippincott, the Volunteer Hospital Corps was transferred to the regular establishment. This secured many excellent men, and a sufficient number of privates was furnished for duty in the Divisional Hospital Corps and for attendance upon the sick in transports.
VICTIMS OF WAR IN THE PHILIPPINES. The following is a complete list of the deaths, as copied from the records in the SurgeonGeneral's office, occurring in the U. S. A. operating in the Philippines up to June 2, 1899:
DIED OF DISEASE
NAME OF ORGANIZATION,
pontanea vor car
Liisi: 19: soos: coi
Astor Battery ............
TOTAL....................... 193 124 114 50 ; 18 85 4 2 3 22 23 8 24 6 8 37 | 721
Total died of disease, 401. Total died of wounds, 124. Total killed in action, 193. The total number of fatalities given is 736—23 officers, 699 privates and 14 civilians attached to the army. The mortality of officers from disease was small, but the officers killed in battle were out of all proportion to the number of privates. Of the 23 officers killed, 16
were shot down in battle and the other 7 died of disease. In the case of the men, 294 died of wounds received in action and 9 were killed accidentally. In addition to the above, 1 officer and 18 enlisted men died on transports returning to San Francisco, and 1 officer and 155 enlisted men had died in the general hospital at San Francisco up to September 30, 1899. The grand total of deaths in the Philippine campaign up to October 1, 1899, is 25 officers, 1 retired officer, 872 enlisted men and 14 civilians, in addition to deaths in the islands between June 2d and October 1st, and a small number who died on hospital ships not reported at Department Headquarters.
NOBLE WORK OF THE VOLUNTEER LADY PHYSICIANS. It would be improper to close this sketch of the work of the Medical Department in the Philippines without mention of the effective aid given by several lady physicians, who were early on the ground, by permission of the government, and who placed their services at the disposal of the medical officer. The true physician is devoted to his profession and unsparing of himself in emergencies, and it would be improper to say that these ladies were any more zealous in the service than the medical officers, who exposed themselves on the field when occasion demanded, as freely as those bearing arms; but it is true that in the womanly touch there is a deftness and in the womanly nature a tenderness which are wanting in the kindest man; and the gentle ministrations of these faithful co-workers in the hospitals, comforted the departing hour of many a dying soldier, and live as a grateful memory in the hearts of hundreds of those who survive.
THE RED CROSS WORK. In connection with the Medical Department, it is appropriate to make some mention of the “Red Cross Society.” It is the duty of all governments to care for their wounded and sick soldiers, and they all seek to discharge that duty, but with the progress of civilization there has . arisen an earnest and world wide desire to supplement government care with the gifts and services of private devotion. During the Crimean War, in 1854, Miss Florence Nightengale at the head of a body of women nurses sent out by the British government, first demonstrated, on a great scale, the effectiveness of women in organized work of relief, and while the Red Cross Society was not founded by women, they have always born their full share of the work, and, in this country, have usually been the recognized leaders.
The immediate occasion of the founding of the Red Cross organization, was the dreadful suffering which followed the Battle of Solferino in 1859, when the army surgeons were utterly unable to deal with the thousands upon thousands of the wounded of the two armies. Henri Dunand, a Swiss gentleman, wlio was present and aided in this care, was so much impressed with the inadequacy of government efforts, that he began an agitation which resulted, in August, 1894, in an official convention of delegates representing sixteen governments, which formulated articles " for the amelioration of the condition of the wounded in the armies in the field]," and which, as modified in a later convention, have received the formal adhesion of the governments of nearly all civilized nations. The badge, the red cross on a white ground, is the national colors of Switzerland reversed, and was adopted as a compliment to the nation where both the treaties have been formulated, and which is the home of the International permanent Committee. This Committee however, is only maintained as a bond of unity between the national committees, which are entirely independent
The United States was very slow in giving its adhesion to the movement. In 1864, during our Civil War, the “Sanitary Commission" was successfully doing its work, and it was not, at the time, thought best to commit the government to any other movement. Subsequently, in 1877, a letter from the President of the International Committee sent through Miss Clara Barton, to President Hayes, does not seem even to have elicited a reply. Later, however, in 1881, a copy of the same letter presented by Miss Barton to President Garfield, received pronipt attention, and as a result, the American Association of the Red Cross was immediately organized, and the United States, in 1882, agreed to the convention of Geneva, being the thirty-second nation to do so.
The American National Society has its auxiliaries in all parts of the United States. Its organization is permanent, and it pursues its work of mercy, not only in war, but at all times when sudden emergencies arise. It seeks to be constantly ready for duty, both as to material