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while this government had practiced the utmost prudence at enormous expense, having in view international relations, to protect Spanish interests in spite of their career of intrigue and destruction, and concludes :
“In the name of humanity, in the name of civilization, in behalf of endangered American interests, which give us the right and the duty to speak and to act, the war in Cuba must stop."
“In view of these facts and these considerations, I ask Congress to authorize and empower the President to take measures to secure a full and final termination of hostilities between the government of Spain and the people of Cuba, and to secure in the island the establishment of a stable government capable of maintaining order and observing its international obligations, insuring peace and tranquillity, and the security of its citizens as well as our own; and to use the military and naval forces of the United States as may be necessary for these purposes.
“And in the interest of humanity and to aid in preserving the lives of the starving people of the island, I recommend that the distribution of food and supplies be continued, and that an appropriation be made out of the public treasury to supplement the charity of our citizens.
“The issue is now with Congress. It is a solemn responsibility. I have exhausted every effort to relieve the intolerable condition of affairs which is at our doors. Prepared to execute every obligation imposed upon me by the constitution and the law, I await your action.”
CONGRESS RECOGNIZES THE INDEPENDENCE OF CUBA.
In this there was no mincing of words. It had the true ring. It was a center shot, and hit a vital part. At once Congress made its response and it likewise came in no uncertain terms. On the 13th of April, the House of Representatives passed a resolution directing the President to intervene in Cuban affairs at once, and authorized him to use the land and naval forces of the United States in his effort to stop the war. The Senate passed a substitute for the House resolution. Not that all did not concur in its spirit, but it was thought to be too loose in its wording. The Senate substitute was adopted by the House, and the measure as finally passed is the following:
“Joint resolution for the recognition of the independence of the people of Cuba, demanding that the government of Spain relinquish its authority and government in the island
A FILIPINO HUT. of Cuba, and withdraw its land and naval forces from Cuba and Cuban waters, and directing the President of the United States to use the land and naval forces of the United States to carry these resolutions into effect.
'Whereas the abhorrent conditions which have existed for more than three years in the island of Cuba, so near our own borders, have shocked the moral sense of the people of the United States, and have been a disgrace to Christian
civilization, culminating, as they have, in the destruction of a United States battleship, with 266 of its officers and crew, while on a friendly visit in the harbor of Havana, and cannot be longer endured, as had been set forth by
the President of the SPANISH FORT AT CAVITE.
United States in his message to Congress of April 11, 1898, upon which the action of Congress was invited; therefore, be it resolved :
“First—That the people of the island of Cuba are, and of right ought to be, free and independent.
“SECOND—That it is the duty of the United States to demand, and the government of the United States does demand, that the government of Spain at once relinquish its authority and government in the island of Cuba, and withdraw its land and naval forces from Cuba and Cuban waters.
“Third—That the President of the United States be, and he hereby is, directed and empowered to use the entire land and naval forces of the United States, and to call into the actual service of the United States the militia of the several states to such an extent as may be necessary to carry these resolutions into effect.
"Fourth—That the United States hereby disclaims any disposition or intention to exercise sovereignty, jurisdiction, or control over said island, except for the pacification thereof, and asserts its determination when that is accomplished to leave the government and control of the island to its people."
On April 20th the United States government presented its ultimatum to Spain to, before noon on April 23rd, relinquish authority and government in the island of Cuba and withdraw both land and naval forces from Cuba and Cuban waters. Spain protested and refused compliance, and at once our North Atlantic squadron was ordered to Cuban waters to blockade Havana and other port cities.
At noon on April 23rd the President issued his proclamation calling for 125,000 men for service in the military and naval forces of the government in the war with Spain. It is as follows:
“Whereas, by a joint resolution of Congress, approved on the 20th day of April, 1898, entitled Joint resolution for the recognition of the independence of the people of Cuba, demanding that the government of Spain relinquish its authority and government in the island of Cuba, and withdraw its land and naval forces from Cuba and Cuban waters, and directing the President of the United States to use the land and naval forces of the United States to carry this resolution into effect,' and,
“Whereas, by an Act of Congress entitled ' An Act to provide for temporarily increasing the military establishment of the United States in time of war and for other purposes,' approved April 22, 1898, the President is authorized, in order to raise a volunteer army, to issue this proclamation calling for volunteers to serve in the army of the United States.
"Now therefore, I, William McKinley, President of the United States, by virtue of the power vested in me by the constitution and the laws, and deeming sufficient occasion to exist, have thought it fit to call forth, and hereby do call forth, volunteers to the aggregate number of 125,000, in order to carry into effect the purpose of the said resolution ; the same to be apportioned, as far as practicable, among the several states and territories and the District of Columbia, according to population, and to serve for two years, unless sooner discharged. The details for this object will be immediately communicated to the proper authorities through the War Department.
“In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of the United States to be affixed.
“Done at the City of Washington this twenty-third day of April, A. D. 1898, and of the independence of the United States the one hundred and twenty-second. "By the President :
WILLIAM McKINLEY. “JOHN SHERMAN, Secretary of State."
Upon the issuance of this proclamation, Chairman Dingley, of the Ways and Means Committee, introduced in the House a War Revenue Bill. At the instance of the President, Congress, on the 25th day of April, made the following formal declaration of war:
“ A bill declaring that war exists between the United States of America and the Kingdom of Spain. Be it enacted, etc.
“1. That war be, and the same is hereby declared to exist, and that war has existed since the 21st day of April, 1898, including said day, between the United States of America and the Kingdom of Spain.
“ 2. That the President of the United States be, and he hereby is, directed and em
A FILIPINO EQUIPAGE, powered to use the entire land and naval forces of the United States, and to call into active service of the United States the militia of the several states to such extent as may be necessary to carry this act into effect.”
On the same day a bill passed the Senate increasing the regular army. Pursuant to the call for troops, the enlistment of men exceeded all expectations, and tenders were made by the governors of many states largely in excess of their quotas. By the 16th of May, 70,000 volunteers had been mustered in, and by the 18th, 92,580, and the following States had completed their quotas: California, Georgia, Idaho, Indiana, Kansas, Maine, Maryland, Minnesota, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Vermont, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming and District of Columbia.
On May 25th the President issued his proclamation, calling for 75,000 more volunteers, making a total force of regulars and volunteers of 278,500 men. A statement from the Treasury Department of June 2d showed that for April the expenditure for a navy was $12,557,000, and for the army, $6,223,000. For May it was, navy, $9,093,000, and the army, $17,093,000. Congress passed a deficiency bill, appropriating $17,845,000 for war expenditures, and on June 10th, the War Revenue bill and the Secretary of the Treasury asked for subscriptions to the $200,000,000 three per cent bonds.
AFTER THE BATTLE OF MANILA BAY.
FTER the destruction of the Spanish fleet the holding of Manila
Bay was a military necessity. The American fleet was 7000 miles from an American port, and among all the hundreds of Asiatic ports which would have been available in time of peace there was not one which was open to an American war-vessel except for temporary refuge from stress of weather, and once only for each ship for such repairs and coal supply as might enable her to reach the nearest home port. It was therefore a
military necessity to hold the bay and the naval docks and shops which had been wrested from the Spaniards. To this extent Admiral Dewey's duty was clear. What should be done with the city of Manila was a different, and far more difficult problem. That it was within his power, by bombardment, to compel the capitulation of the city there could be no doubt. Had a Spanish fleet been approaching with the intent to attack him in Manila Bay, it would have doubtless been a military necessity to promptly reduce the city, no matter at what hazard, that in the event of another naval battle, his ships might not be subject to the fire of shore batteries. This condition, however, for the time being, did not exist. The only Spanish fleet in Oriental waters had been destroyed. Dewey's fleet was safe in Manila harbor, with full possession of the stores, docks and shops of Cavite, and it was perfectly certain that so long as he did not attack Manila its batteries would not fire upon the American ships. If, on the other hand, he should take possession of Manila, international law would hold the United States responsible for the protection of non-Spanish persons and property in the city, and the law of humanity would hold them equally responsible for the protection of all other non-combatants. For this duty Admiral Dewey had no force, and his obvious course, therefore, was the one adopted—to leave things as they were, pending instructions and reinforcements, for which he promptly applied, meanwhile, of course, maintaining a close blockade of the port.
THE AMERICAN POLICY UNDETERMINED. Whether or not the opening thus made should be followed by the conquest and annexation, or other disposal of the Philippines, was a matter to be determined at Washington, and for the present the authorities there had no means of forming an opinion. There was absolutely no public sentiment upon the subject other than the general desire to seize everything belonging to the enemy, which